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Special Issue "Woody Biomass for Bioenergy Production"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 October 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technologies, Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA
Website 1 | Website 2 | E-Mail
Phone: +1-208-526-0529
Interests: biomass; mechnical preprocessing; thermal pretreatements; biomass storage; extrusion of foods and feeds; modeling and optimziation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As an important renewable and sustainable energy resource, forest biomass is considered as the primary energy resource. Woody biomass can be converted to biofuels by different methods, such as thermal, chemical, and biochemical methods. Woody biomass, as an energy source, can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to different biofuels. The focus of this Special Issue to classify woody biomass, harvesting technologies, supply chain logistics, physical and chemical properties, mechanical preprocessing (size reduction, and densification), and drying. In this Special Issue, emphasis will be on thermal pretreatments, such as torrefaction and hydrothermal carbonization, which makes woody biomass suitable for cofiring and thermochemical conversion to produce liquid fuels using technologies like pyrolysis and gasification. International trade of solid and liquid fuel products produced using woody biomass is also within the scope of the Special Issue.  

Dr. Jaya Tumuluru
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • woody biomass
  • types and classification
  • harvesting technologies
  • storage methods and issues
  • size reduction,
  • drying
  • densification
  • torrefaction
  • hydrothermal carbonization
  • gasification
  • pyrolysis
  • transportation logistics
  • international market

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Correlations to Predict Elemental Compositions and Heating Value of Torrefied Biomass
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2443; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092443
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Measurements reported in the literature on ultimate analysis of various types of torrefied woody biomass, comprising 152 data points, have been compiled and empirical correlations are developed to predict the carbon content, hydrogen content, and heating value of a torrefied wood as a
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Measurements reported in the literature on ultimate analysis of various types of torrefied woody biomass, comprising 152 data points, have been compiled and empirical correlations are developed to predict the carbon content, hydrogen content, and heating value of a torrefied wood as a function of solid mass yield. The range of torrefaction temperature, residence time and solid yield of the collected data is 200–300 °C, 5–60 min and 58–97%, respectively. Two correlations are proposed for carbon content with a coefficient of determination ( R 2 ) of 81.52% and 89.86%, two for hydrogen content with R 2 of 79.01% and 88.45%, and one for higher heating value with R 2 of 92.80%. The root mean square error (RMSE) values of the proposed correlations are 0.037, 0.028, 0.059, 0.043 and 0.023, respectively. The predictability of the proposed relations is examined with an additional set of experimental data and compared with the existing correlations in the literature. The new correlations can be used as a useful tool when designing torrefaction plants, furnaces, or gasifiers operating on torrefied wood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Woody Biomass for Bioenergy Production)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Fertilization and Rootstocks in the Biomass Energy Characterization of Prunus dulcis (Miller)
Energies 2018, 11(5), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11051189
Received: 16 March 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
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Abstract
The importance of replacing fossil fuels with new energy routes such as the use of biomass leads to the improvement of sources such as agricultural and forest systems through adequate management techniques.The selection of the vegetal material and the management practices can influence
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The importance of replacing fossil fuels with new energy routes such as the use of biomass leads to the improvement of sources such as agricultural and forest systems through adequate management techniques.The selection of the vegetal material and the management practices can influence the properties and quality of the obtained biofuel. The properties of the biomass obtained from pruning almond trees (Prunus dulcis (Mill)) have been analyzed in this study. Two varieties were tested, Marcona and Vayro, with three rootstocks, GF305, GF677 and GN Garnem, under different fertilization systems. The quality of the biofuel was evaluated with respect to the chemical composition and gross calorific value. We observed that the variables that mostly influenced the gross calorific value of the biomass were the variety, the rootstock and, primarily, the variety-rootstock interaction. Marcona presented better biomass properties than Vayro. Trees grafted on GF305 obtained a higher gross calorific value than the ones grafted on GF677 and GN Garnem. The percentage of nitrogen highly depended on the fertilization treatment applied, with saccharides and aminoacid fertilization accumulating a higher level of nitrogen than the humic and fluvic fertilization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Woody Biomass for Bioenergy Production)
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Open AccessArticle Measuring the Regional Availability of Forest Biomass for Biofuels and the Potential of GHG Reduction
Energies 2018, 11(1), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010198
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
Forest biomass is an important resource for producing bioenergy and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The State of Michigan in the United States (U.S.) is one region recognized for its high potential of supplying forest biomass; however, the long-term availability of timber harvests
[...] Read more.
Forest biomass is an important resource for producing bioenergy and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The State of Michigan in the United States (U.S.) is one region recognized for its high potential of supplying forest biomass; however, the long-term availability of timber harvests and the associated harvest residues from this area has not been fully explored. In this study time trend analyses was employed for long term timber assessment and developed mathematical models for harvest residue estimation, as well as the implications of use for ethanol. The GHG savings potential of ethanol over gasoline was also modeled. The methods were applied in Michigan under scenarios of different harvest solutions, harvest types, transportation distances, conversion technologies, and higher heating values over a 50-year period. Our results indicate that the study region has the potential to supply 0.75–1.4 Megatonnes (Mt) dry timber annually and less than 0.05 Mt of dry residue produced from these harvests. This amount of forest biomass could generate 0.15–1.01 Mt of ethanol, which contains 0.68–17.32 GJ of energy. The substitution of ethanol for gasoline as transportation fuel has potential to reduce emissions by 0.043–1.09 Mt CO2eq annually. The developed method is generalizable in other similar regions of different countries for bioenergy related analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Woody Biomass for Bioenergy Production)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Thermal Pretreatment Temperatures on Woody Biomass Chemical Composition, Physical Properties and Microstructure
Energies 2018, 11(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11010025
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (7775 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermal pretreatment of biomass by torrefaction and low temperature pyrolysis has the potential for generating high quality and more suitable fuels. To utilize a model to describe the complex and dynamic changes taking place during these two treatments for process design, optimization and
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Thermal pretreatment of biomass by torrefaction and low temperature pyrolysis has the potential for generating high quality and more suitable fuels. To utilize a model to describe the complex and dynamic changes taking place during these two treatments for process design, optimization and scale-up, detailed data is needed on the property evolution during treatment of well-defined individual biomass particles. The objectives of this study are to investigate the influence of thermal pretreatment temperatures on wood biomass biochemical compositions, physical properties and microstructure. Wild cherry wood was selected as a model biomass and prepared for this study. The well-defined wood particle samples were consecutively heated at 220, 260, 300, 350, 450 and 550 °C for 0.5 h under nitrogen. Untreated and treated samples were characterized for biochemical composition changes (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), physical properties (color, dimensions, weight, density and grindablity), chemical property (proximate analysis and heating value) and microstructural changes by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hemicellulose was mostly decomposed in the samples treated at 260 and 300 °C and resulted in the cell walls weakening resulting in improved grindability. The dimensions of the wood were reduced in all directions and shrinkage increased with increased treatment temperature and weight loss. With increased treatment temperature, losses of weight and volume increased and bulk density decreased. The low temperature pyrolyzed wood samples improved solid fuel property with high fuel ratio, which are close to lignite/bituminous coal. Morphology of the wood remained intact through the treatment range but the cell walls were thinner. These results will improve the understanding of the property changes of the biomass during pretreatment and will help to develop models for process simulation and potential application of the treated biomass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Woody Biomass for Bioenergy Production)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Syngas Cooling and Biomass Filter Medium on Tar Removal
Energies 2017, 10(3), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/en10030349
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomass gasification is a proven technology; however, one of the major obstacles in using product syngas for electric power generation and biofuels is the removal of tar. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate effectiveness of tar removal methods by
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Biomass gasification is a proven technology; however, one of the major obstacles in using product syngas for electric power generation and biofuels is the removal of tar. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate effectiveness of tar removal methods by cooling the syngas and using wood shavings as filtering media. The performance of the wood shavings filter equipped with an oil bubbler and heat exchanger as cooling systems was tested using tar-laden syngas generated from a 20-kW downdraft gasifier. The tar reduction efficiencies of wood shavings filter, wood shavings filter with heat exchanger, and wood shavings filter with oil bubbler were 10%, 61%, and 97%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Woody Biomass for Bioenergy Production)
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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle Torrefied Biomass Pellets—Comparing Grindability in Different Laboratory Mills
Energies 2016, 9(10), 794; https://doi.org/10.3390/en9100794
Received: 17 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 September 2016 / Published: 4 October 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The firing and co-firing of biomass in pulverized coal fired power plants around the world is expected to increase in the coming years. Torrefaction may prove to be a suitable way of upgrading biomass for such an application. For transport and storage purposes,
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The firing and co-firing of biomass in pulverized coal fired power plants around the world is expected to increase in the coming years. Torrefaction may prove to be a suitable way of upgrading biomass for such an application. For transport and storage purposes, the torrefied biomass will tend to be in pellet form. Whilst standard methods for the assessment of the milling characteristics of coal exist, this is not the case for torrefied materials—whether in pellet form or not. The grindability of the fuel directly impacts the overall efficiency of the combustion process and as such it is an important parameter. In the present study, the grindability of different torrefied biomass pellets was tested in three different laboratory mill types; cutting mill (CM), hammer mill (HM) and impact mill (IM). The specific grinding energy (SGE) required for a defined mass throughput of pellets in each mill was measured and results were compared to other pellet characterization methods (e.g., durability, and hardness) as well as the modified Hardgrove Index. Seven different torrefied biomass pellets including willow, pine, beech, poplar, spruce, forest residue and straw were used as feedstock. On average, the particle-size distribution width (across all feedstock) was narrowest for the IM (0.41 mm), followed by the HM (0.51 mm) and widest for the CM (0.62 mm). Regarding the SGE, the IM consumed on average 8.23 Wh/kg while CM and HM consumed 5.15 and 5.24 Wh/kg, respectively. From the three mills compared in this study, the IM seems better fit for being used in a standardized method that could be developed in the future, e.g., as an ISO standard. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Woody Biomass for Bioenergy Production)
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Other

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Open AccessBrief Report Pyrolysis Kinetics of the Arid Land Biomass Halophyte Salicornia Bigelovii and Phoenix Dactylifera Using Thermogravimetric Analysis
Energies 2018, 11(9), 2283; https://doi.org/10.3390/en11092283
Received: 6 May 2018 / Revised: 10 June 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
Biomass availability in arid regions is challenging due to limited arable land and lack of fresh water. In this study, we focus on pyrolysis of two biomasses that are typically abundant agricultural biomasses in arid regions, focusing on understanding the reaction rates and
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Biomass availability in arid regions is challenging due to limited arable land and lack of fresh water. In this study, we focus on pyrolysis of two biomasses that are typically abundant agricultural biomasses in arid regions, focusing on understanding the reaction rates and Arrhenius kinetic parameters that describe the pyrolysis reactions of halophyte Salicornia bigelovii, date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and co-pyrolysis biomass using thermo-gravimetric analysis under non-isothermal conditions. The mass loss data obtained from thermogravimetric analysis of S. bigelovii and date palm revealed the reaction rate peaked between 592 K and 612 K for P. dactylifera leaves and 588 K and 609 K for S. bigelovii at heating rates, 5 K/min, 10 K/min and 15 K/min during the active pyrolysis phase. The activation energy for S. bigelovii and P. dactylifera leaves during this active pyrolysis phase were estimated using the Kissinger method as 147.6 KJ/mol and 164.7 KJ/mol respectively with pre-exponential factors of 3.13 × 109/min and 9.55 × 1010/min for the respective biomasses. Other isoconversional models such as the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa were used to determine these kinetic parameters during other phases of the pyrolysis reaction and gave similar results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Woody Biomass for Bioenergy Production)
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