Special Issue "Control Schemes for Wind Electricity Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Olimpo Anaya-Lara
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 2TB, UK
Interests: stability and control of power grids with mixed generation; wind turbine/wind farm control; vsc-hvdc transmission
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wind electricity systems are complex and involve numerous components arranged in subsystems that have different control objectives and modelling and performance requirements over a broad range of timescales. With the development of large onshore/offshore wind farms and the attainment of high wind power penetration, it is no longer satisfactory for wind farms to be passive providers of generated power. Instead, they must become virtual generation plant that behaves similarly to conventional generation plant. The power generated by the wind farm and its wind turbines can no longer simply be that dictated by wind speed. The power must be adjusted as required by the Transmission System Operators (TSOs). To do so requires flexible operation of the individual turbine and a wind farm controller to maximise wind farm-generated power and provide ancillary services, including curtailment, frequency support, and voltage/reactive power support, and minimise O&M costs.

This Special Issue aims to gather new knowledge on control schemes for wind electricity systems to optimise the utilisation of these expensive assets, thereby assisting to reduce the cost of energy. Topics of interest for publication include:

  • Wind farm models for control design purposes;
  • Wind turbine/wind farm control for
    • loads mitigation
    • power production maximisation
    • Grid Code compliance and provision of ancillary services;
  • Control of HVDC for large offshore wind integration;
  • Control systems for floating wind turbines;
  • Control systems for multi-rotor wind turbines.

Prof. Olimpo Anaya-Lara
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wind power
  • wind energy conversion systems
  • wind turbine control
  • wind farm control
  • pitch control
  • fatigue loads
  • torque control
  • maximum power point tracking
  • power electronic converter
  • HVDC
  • ancillary services
  • grid code compliance
  • frequency control
  • voltage control
  • fault-ride through
  • reactive power control

Published Papers (10 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Wind Power Plant Control for System Integration Using the Generator Response Following Concept
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1804; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071804 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, a novel concept to integrate High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC)-connected offshore wind power plants with the onshore grid is presented. The concept makes use of a holistic wind farm controller along with a fully instrumented conventional synchronous generator at the [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel concept to integrate High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC)-connected offshore wind power plants with the onshore grid is presented. The concept makes use of a holistic wind farm controller along with a fully instrumented conventional synchronous generator at the point of common coupling. In our approach, the wind farm is able to replicate the natural response of the generator to a system, even enabling the wind farm to reproduce, in a scaled up manner, a range of ancillary services without having to rely on indirect frequency measurements which are prone to noise and delays. Simulation results are presented to validate the proposed solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Schemes for Wind Electricity Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Novel Control Approach for a Hybrid Grid-Forming HVDC Offshore Transmission System
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1681; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071681 - 03 Apr 2020
Abstract
This article describes a hybrid topology of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) for offshore wind farms using a series connection of a voltage source converter (VSC) and six-pulse diode rectifier (6P-DR). In this topology, the offshore side VSC (OF-VSC) acts as a grid-forming converter [...] Read more.
This article describes a hybrid topology of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) for offshore wind farms using a series connection of a voltage source converter (VSC) and six-pulse diode rectifier (6P-DR). In this topology, the offshore side VSC (OF-VSC) acts as a grid-forming converter to maintain the PCC (point of common coupling) voltage of offshore wind farms (WF) and frequency. In addition, the OF-VSC functions as an active power filter to suppress the 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th order harmonic current components produced by the 6P-DR, making it almost sinusoidal. Due to the 6P-DR being used in the hybrid converter, this new configuration reduces the total cost of the converters and losses, while preserving the power flow to the onshore gird. Compared to the fully-rated converter and hybrid converter based on a 12-pulse diode rectifier, the power loss and cost are reduced, and in addition, the proposed hybrid converter does not require a phase shift transformer nor a high number of diodes. A 200 MW in an HVDC transmission system using the hybrid configuration was simulated in PSCAD. The results show that the system operated correctly and the harmonic components were filtered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Schemes for Wind Electricity Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Dual Closed-Loop Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control of Grid-Side Converter of Permanent Magnet Direct-Drive Wind Turbine
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051090 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
In the permanent magnet direct-drive wind power grid-connected system, in order to solve the coupling problem between d-axis and q-axis currents and to improve the disturbance rejection performance of direct current (DC) bus voltage under grid faults, a new dual closed-loop [...] Read more.
In the permanent magnet direct-drive wind power grid-connected system, in order to solve the coupling problem between d -axis and q -axis currents and to improve the disturbance rejection performance of direct current (DC) bus voltage under grid faults, a new dual closed-loop structure based on linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC) is proposed. This new dual closed-loop control includes current inner loop decoupling control and DC bus voltage outer loop control with first-order LADRC. As the LADRC has the advantages of decoupling and disturbances rejection, it is applied to the control of wind power grid-connected inverter. Through analysis, it is demonstrated that the current decoupling control is simpler than proportional integral (PI) control algorithm, the dynamic response speed is faster, and the DC bus voltage control has better anti-disturbance. Finally, a 1.5 MW direct-drive permanent magnet wind power system was established through digital simulation, and the control effects of the two control modes under different working conditions are compared. The simulation results verify that the proposed dual closed-loop control based on first-order LADRC is superior to PI double closed-loop control in terms of decoupling performance and disturbance rejection performance under grid faults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Schemes for Wind Electricity Systems)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control for DC Bus Voltage of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Based on Total Disturbance Differential
Energies 2019, 12(20), 3906; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12203906 - 15 Oct 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
The wind power grid-connected inverter system has nonlinear, strong coupling, and is susceptible to grid voltage fluctuations and nonlinear load effects. To achieve satisfactory control results, the voltage outer loop is controlled by an improved linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC). LADRC has [...] Read more.
The wind power grid-connected inverter system has nonlinear, strong coupling, and is susceptible to grid voltage fluctuations and nonlinear load effects. To achieve satisfactory control results, the voltage outer loop is controlled by an improved linear active disturbance rejection control (LADRC). LADRC has strong adaptability, robustness and operability. It can automatically detect and compensate for internal and external disturbances, and correct complex controlled objects to integrator series. The total perturbation differential signal is introduced in the traditional linear extended state observer (LESO), which improves the dynamic perturbation observation ability of LESO. The frequency response characteristics analysis shows that the new LADRC has better anti-interference performance. The effectiveness of the improved controller under multiple operating conditions is verified by simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Schemes for Wind Electricity Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
THD Reduction in Distributed Renewables Energy Access through Wind Energy Conversion System Integration under Wind Speed Conditions in Tamaulipas, Mexico
Energies 2019, 12(18), 3550; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12183550 - 17 Sep 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
In this article, a technique for the reduction of total harmonic distortion (THD) in distributed renewables energy access (DREA) composed of wind turbines is introduced and tested under the wind speed conditions presented in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The analysis and simulation are delimited by [...] Read more.
In this article, a technique for the reduction of total harmonic distortion (THD) in distributed renewables energy access (DREA) composed of wind turbines is introduced and tested under the wind speed conditions presented in Tamaulipas, Mexico. The analysis and simulation are delimited by a study case based on wind speeds measured and recorded for one year at two highs in the municipality of Soto La Marina, Tamaulipas, Mexico. From this information, the most probable wind speed and the corresponding turbulence intensity is calculated and applied to a wind energy conversion system (WECS). The WECS is composed of an active front-end (AFE) converter topology using four voltage source converters (VSCs) connected in parallel with a different phase shift angle at the digital sinusoidal pulse width modulation (DSPWM) signals of each VSC. The WECS is formed by the connection of five type-4 wind turbines (WTs). The effectiveness and robustness of the DREA integration are reviewed in the light of a complete mathematical model and corroborated by the simulation results in Matlab-Simulink®. The results evidence a reduction of the THD in grid currents up to four times and which enables the delivery of a power capacity of 10 MVA in the Tamaulipas AC distribution grid that complies with grid code of harmonic distortion production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Schemes for Wind Electricity Systems)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Impact of DFIG Synthetic Inertia Provision on Power System Small-Signal Stability
Energies 2019, 12(18), 3440; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12183440 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Synthetic inertia provision through the control of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbines is an effective means of providing frequency support to the wider electrical network. There are numerous control topologies to achieve this, many of which work by making modifications to the [...] Read more.
Synthetic inertia provision through the control of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbines is an effective means of providing frequency support to the wider electrical network. There are numerous control topologies to achieve this, many of which work by making modifications to the DFIG power controller and introducing additional loops to relate active power to electrical frequency. How these many controller designs compare to one-another in terms of their contribution to frequency response is a much studied topic, but perhaps less studied is their effect on the small-signal stability of the system. The concept of small-signal stability in the context of a power system is the ability to maintain synchronism when subjected to small disturbances, such as those associated with a change in load or a loss of generation. Amendments made to the control system of a large-scale wind farm will inevitably have an effect on the system as a whole, and by making a DFIG wind turbine behave more like a synchronous generator, which synthetic inertia provision does, may incur consequences relating to electromechanical oscillations between generating units. This work compares the implications of two prominent synthetic inertia controllers of varying complexity and their effect on small-signal stability. Eigenvalue analysis is conducted to highlight the key information relating to electromechanical modes between generators for the two control strategies, with a focus on how these affect the damping ratios. It is shown that as the synthetic inertia controller becomes both more complex and more effective, the damping ratio of the electromechanical modes is reduced, signifying a decreased system stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Schemes for Wind Electricity Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Analysis and Control of Wind Power Grid Integration Based on a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Using a Fuzzy Logic System with Linear Extended State Observer
Energies 2019, 12(15), 2862; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12152862 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Recently, wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have attracted attention due to their effective application in renewable energy sources. It is a complex system with multi-variables, strong coupling, non-linearity, and variable parameters; however, traditional control systems are inadequate in answering the demands of complex [...] Read more.
Recently, wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have attracted attention due to their effective application in renewable energy sources. It is a complex system with multi-variables, strong coupling, non-linearity, and variable parameters; however, traditional control systems are inadequate in answering the demands of complex systems. In order to solve the complexity and improve the transient stability during grid faults and power fluctuations, this paper proposes a fuzzy logic system with the linear extended state observer (FLS-LESO) applied to WECSs based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The FLS-LESO consists of a fuzzy logic controller, a conventional PD controller, and the linear extended state observer (LESO). This paper analyzes the mathematical model of a wind power system and combines it with LESO to improve the estimation accuracy of the observer and further improve the control performance. In the simulation study, the control performance of the FLS-LESO was also tested under various operating conditions using the MATLAB/Simulink simulation platform to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the control system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Schemes for Wind Electricity Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
PMSG-Based Black-Start Technology and Its Field Tests
Energies 2019, 12(11), 2144; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12112144 - 04 Jun 2019
Abstract
It is of great importance for power grids to have black-start capability for rapid recovery, and there is great theoretical significance and practical application value in studying how to use wind farms as the black-start power supply source for power grids with large-scale [...] Read more.
It is of great importance for power grids to have black-start capability for rapid recovery, and there is great theoretical significance and practical application value in studying how to use wind farms as the black-start power supply source for power grids with large-scale renewable energy generation. In this paper, a black-start scheme using a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG)-based wind farm as black-start power supply source is formulated. First, a diesel generator is used as an external supporting power supply for the self-start of a wind power unit (WPU). Then, after all the planned WPUs operate normally, the wind farm with the diesel generator and static var generator (SVG) is used to black start the simulated auxiliary load of a thermal power plant. A field test of the proposed black-start scheme is carried out on an actual wind farm in Jiangsu Province (China). The results of the field test show that wind farms can act as a black-start power supply source for the grid after appropriate technological transformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Schemes for Wind Electricity Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Active Power Dispatch for Supporting Grid Frequency Regulation in Wind Farms Considering Fatigue Load
Energies 2019, 12(8), 1508; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12081508 - 21 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
This paper proposes an active power control method for supporting grid frequency regulation in wind farms (WF) considering improved fatigue load sensitivity of wind turbines (WT). The control method is concluded into two parts: frequency adjustment control (FAC) and power reference dispatch (PRD). [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an active power control method for supporting grid frequency regulation in wind farms (WF) considering improved fatigue load sensitivity of wind turbines (WT). The control method is concluded into two parts: frequency adjustment control (FAC) and power reference dispatch (PRD). On one hand, the proposed Fuzzy-PID control method can actively maintain the balance between power generation and grid load, by which the grid frequency is regulated when plenty of winds are available. The fast power response can be provided and frequency error can be reduced by the proposed method. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the WT fatigue loads to the power references is improved. The explicit analytical equations of the fatigue load sensitivity are re-derived to improve calculation accuracy. In the process of the optimization dispatch, the re-defined fatigue load sensitivity will be used to minimize fatigue load. Case studies were conducted with a WF under different grid loads and turbulent wind with different intensities. By comparing the frequency response of the WF, rainflow cycle, and Damage Equivalent Load (DEL) of the WT, the efficacy of the proposed method is verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Schemes for Wind Electricity Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Data-Driven Decentralized Algorithm for Wind Farm Control with Population-Games Assistance
Energies 2019, 12(6), 1164; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12061164 - 26 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In wind farms, the interaction between turbines that operate close by experience some problems in terms of their power generation. Wakes caused by upstream turbines are mainly responsible of these interactions, and the phenomena involved in this case is complex especially when the [...] Read more.
In wind farms, the interaction between turbines that operate close by experience some problems in terms of their power generation. Wakes caused by upstream turbines are mainly responsible of these interactions, and the phenomena involved in this case is complex especially when the number of turbines is high. In order to deal with these issues, there is a need to develop control strategies that maximize the energy captured from a wind farm. In this work, an algorithm that uses multiple estimated gradients based on measurements that are classified by using a simple distributed population-games-based algorithm is proposed. The update in the decision variables is computed by making a superposition of the estimated gradients together with the classification of the measurements. In order to maximize the energy captured and maintain the individual power generation, several constraints are considered in the proposed algorithm. Basically, the proposed control scheme reduces the communications needed, which increases the reliability of the wind farm operation. The control scheme is validated in simulation in a benchmark corresponding to the Horns Rev wind farm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control Schemes for Wind Electricity Systems)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop