Special Issue "Frontier (2021): Process Engineering and Control Systems"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "J: State-of-the-Art Energy Related Technologies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Dagmar Janacova
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Faculty of Applied Informatics, Nad Stranemi 4511, 76005 Zlin, Czech Republic
Interests: process engineering; process optimization; chemical engineering; control systems; modeling and simulation; mathematical modelling

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will include contributions that highlight the important combination of process engineering and automatic control. The use of process engineering tools such as process optimization based on material, energy balances, mathematical modeling, and simulations, followed by the application of automatic control for streamlining and saving processes, which allow solving and implementing process engineering tasks to minimize process costs, minimize waste production, the design of new recycling technologies, and even new waste-free technologies, are of interest. Therefore, we invite contributions on innovative technical development, reviews, case studies, and analytical and evaluation contributions from various fields that are relevant in the field of process engineering and control systems.

Prof. Dr. Dagmar Janacova
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Process engineering
  • Automatic control
  • Control systems
  • Mathematic modelling
  • Optimization of process

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
Mathematical Modeling of Urea Reaction with Sulfuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid to Produce Ammonium Sulfate and Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate Respectively
Energies 2021, 14(23), 8004; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14238004 - 30 Nov 2021
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Abstract
Urea is the final product of protein metabolism in mammals and can be found in different biological fluids. Use of mammalian urine in agricultural production as organic fertilizer requires safe handling to avoid the formation of ammonia that will decrease the fertilizer value [...] Read more.
Urea is the final product of protein metabolism in mammals and can be found in different biological fluids. Use of mammalian urine in agricultural production as organic fertilizer requires safe handling to avoid the formation of ammonia that will decrease the fertilizer value due to the loss of nitrogen. Safe handling is also required to minimize the decomposition of urea into condensed products such as biuret and cyanuric acid, which will also have a negative impact on the potential sustainable production of crops and sanitation technologies. The study of thermodynamics and reaction kinetics of urea stabilization plays a key role in understanding the conditions under which undesirable compounds and impurities in urea-based fertilizers and urea-based selective catalytic reduction systems are formed. For this reason, we studied the reaction of urea in acid media to achieve urea stabilization by modeling the reaction of urea with sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid, and estimating the reaction enthalpy and adiabatic heat difference for control of the heat released from the neutralization step using Ca(OH)2 or MgO for the safety of the process. Numerical and simulation analyses were performed by studying the effect of the surrounding temperature, the ratio of acid reagent to urea concentration, the rate of addition, and the reaction rate to estimate the required time to achieve an optimum value of urea conversion into ammonium dihydrogen phosphate or ammonium sulfate as potential technological opportunities for by-product valorization. Full conversion of urea was achieved in about 10 h for reaction rates in the order of 1 × 10−5s−1 when the ratio of H2SO4 to CH4N2O was 1.5. When increasing the ratio to 10, the time required for full conversion was considerably reduced to 3 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontier (2021): Process Engineering and Control Systems)
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Article
Relay Identification Using Shifting Method for PID Controller Tuning
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5945; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185945 - 18 Sep 2021
Viewed by 341
Abstract
The aim of this study was to present a relay shifting method for relay feedback identification of dynamical systems suitable for PID controller tuning. The proposed technique uses a biased relay to determine frequency response points from a single experiment without any assumptions [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to present a relay shifting method for relay feedback identification of dynamical systems suitable for PID controller tuning. The proposed technique uses a biased relay to determine frequency response points from a single experiment without any assumptions about a model transfer function. The method is applicable for open-loop stable, unstable, and integration processes, even with a delay, and regardless of whether they are oscillating or non-oscillating. The core of this technique was formed by the so-called relay shifting filter. In this study, the method was applied to a parameter estimation of a second-order time-delayed (SOTD) model that can describe, with acceptable accuracy, the dynamics of most processes (even with a transport delay) near the operating point. Simultaneously, a parameter setting for the PID controller was derived based on the model parameters. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated on various simulated processes and tested on real laboratory apparatuses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontier (2021): Process Engineering and Control Systems)
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Article
Evaluating the Effect of Demand Response Programs (DRPs) on Robust Optimal Sizing of Islanded Microgrids
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5750; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185750 - 13 Sep 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
A microgrid is a small-scale energy system with its own generation and storage facilities and energy management system, which includes shiftable and traditional loads. The purpose of this research is to determine the size of the microgrid through (i) investigating the effect of [...] Read more.
A microgrid is a small-scale energy system with its own generation and storage facilities and energy management system, which includes shiftable and traditional loads. The purpose of this research is to determine the size of the microgrid through (i) investigating the effect of a shiftable demand response program (DRP) on sizing of an islanded microgrid and (ii) studying the uncertainty of power output of renewable energy sources by applying the robust optimization (RO) method. Since the RO method solves the problem for lower power outputs of renewable energy sources (RES) than the predicted values, the results obtained are pessimistic and will increase the project cost. To deal with the increment of project cost, the application of a load shifting DRP is proposed to reduce the cost. In addition, DRPs are suitable means to reduce the effects of uncertain power sources. Therefore, it is shown that a shiftable DRP is effective in reducing the overall project cost and the dependency on energy storage systems by defining different scenarios and simulating them with General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) software. Moreover, it is indicated that the shiftable DRP and battery state of charge have correlations with solar irradiance and wind speed, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontier (2021): Process Engineering and Control Systems)
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