Special Issue "Low-Temperature Thermodynamic Power Cycles"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Muhammad Imran
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, B4 7ET Birmingham, UK
Interests: organic rankine cycle; heat transfer; supercritical CO2 cycle; district heating and cooling; combined heat and power; renewable energy; hybrid renewable system
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Alison Subiantoro
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Auckland, 5 Grafton Road, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
Interests: Expander and compressor technology, Thermal management, Thermodynamics, heat transfer, Renewable and clean energy, Sustainability
Prof. Dr. Kyung Chun Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, South Korea
Interests: organic Rankine cycle; heat transfer and heat exchangers; thermodynamics; experimental fluid mechanics; numerical modelling; advance power generation technologies
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

The environmental impact of fossil fuels had sparked a significant amount of research interest in efficiency and low carbon energy conversion technologies. At a global scale, about 30%–60% of input energy for thermal energy systems is discarded as waste heat into the environment. Conversion of part of this waste heat can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emission and improve energy efficiency. 

The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is considered an ideal choice for low temperature and waste heat to power conversion technologies. Although the ORC system has been successfully adopted and implemented in industry, the need for cost reduction and efficiency improvement still persist. The ORC technology is being rapidly developed to improve the overall efficiency of conventional energy conversion systems. This Special Issue will provide a comprehensive overview of the latest research and development in the area of ORC technology. Authors are encouraged to submit original research and review articles for the Special Issue. Themes include but are not limited to:

  • Applications and energy sources;
  • System design and optimisation;
  • Working fluids (pure, mixtures, nanofluids);
  • Turbines and volumetric expanders;
  • Dynamic modelling and control strategies;
  • Operational experience on prototypes;
  • Novel/advanced cycle configurations;
  • Domestic/multigeneration systems. 
Dr. Muhammad Imran
Dr. Alison Subiantoro
Prof. Kyung Chun Kim
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Organic Rankine Cycle
  • Waste Heat Recovery
  • Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle
  • Kalina Cycle
  • Low-Temperature to Power Conversion
  • Thermodynamic Cycles

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Exergoeconomic and Environmental Modeling of Integrated Polygeneration Power Plant with Biomass-Based Syngas Supplemental Firing
Energies 2020, 13(22), 6018; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13226018 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 456
Abstract
There is a burden of adequate energy supply for meeting demand and reducing emission to avoid the average global temperature of above 2 °C of the pre-industrial era. Therefore, this study presents the exergoeconomic and environmental analysis of a proposed integrated multi-generation plant [...] Read more.
There is a burden of adequate energy supply for meeting demand and reducing emission to avoid the average global temperature of above 2 °C of the pre-industrial era. Therefore, this study presents the exergoeconomic and environmental analysis of a proposed integrated multi-generation plant (IMP), with supplemental biomass-based syngas firing. An in-service gas turbine plant, fired by natural gas, was retrofitted with a gas turbine (GT), steam turbine (ST), organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for cooling and power production, a modified Kalina cycle (KC) for power production and cooling, and a vapour absorption system (VAB) for cooling. The overall network, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency of the IMP were estimated at 183 MW, 61.50% and 44.22%, respectively. The specific emissions were estimated at 122.2, 0.222, and 3.0 × 10−7 kg/MWh for CO2, NOx, and CO, respectively. Similarly, the harmful fuel emission factor, and newly introduced sustainability indicators—exergo-thermal index (ETI) and exergetic utility exponent (EUE)—were obtained as 0.00067, 0.675, and 0.734, respectively. The LCC of $1.58 million was obtained, with a payback of 4 years, while the unit cost of energy was estimated at 0.0166 $/kWh. The exergoeconomic factor and the relative cost difference of the IMP were obtained as 50.37% and 162.38%, respectively. The optimum operating parameters obtained by a genetic algorithm gave the plant’s total cost rate of 125.83 $/hr and exergy efficiency of 39.50%. The proposed system had the potential to drive the current energy transition crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic shock in the energy sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Temperature Thermodynamic Power Cycles)
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Open AccessArticle
Waste Heat Recovery from Diesel Engine Exhaust Using a Single-Screw Expander Organic Rankine Cycle System: Experimental Investigation of Exergy Destruction
Energies 2020, 13(22), 5914; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225914 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 524
Abstract
The organic Rankine cycle is a mature small-scale power generation technology for harnessing low- to mid-temperature heat sources. However, the low efficiency of the cycle still hinders its widespread implementation. To optimize the cycle’s performance, it is crucial to identify the source and [...] Read more.
The organic Rankine cycle is a mature small-scale power generation technology for harnessing low- to mid-temperature heat sources. However, the low efficiency of the cycle still hinders its widespread implementation. To optimize the cycle’s performance, it is crucial to identify the source and magnitude of losses within each component of the cycle. This study, thus, aims to investigate the irreversible losses and their effect on the performance of the system. A prototype organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with the exhaust of a diesel engine as the heat source was developed to experimentally investigate the system and ascertain the losses. The experiments were performed at steady-state conditions at different evaporation pressures from 1300 kPa to 1600 kPa. The exergy loss and exergetic efficiency of the individual component and the overall system was estimated from the experimentally measurement of the pressure, temperature, and mass flow rate. The results indicate that the exergy losses of the evaporator are almost 60 kW at different evaporation pressures and the exergy loss rate is from 69.1% to 65.1%, which accounted for most of the total exergy loss rate in the organic Rankine cycle system. Meanwhile, the highest shaft efficiency and exergetic efficiency of the screw expander are 49.8% and 38.4%, respectively, and the exergy losses and exergy loss rate of the pump and pipe are less than 0.5 kW and 1%. Due to the relatively higher exergy loss of the evaporator and the low efficiency of expander, the highest exergetic efficiency of the organic Rankine cycle system is about 10.8%. The study concludes that the maximum improvement potential lies in the evaporator, followed by the expander. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Temperature Thermodynamic Power Cycles)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Phase Change Material Storage on the Dynamic Performance of a Direct Vapor Generation Solar Organic Rankine Cycle System
Energies 2020, 13(22), 5904; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225904 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 562
Abstract
Solar energy is a potential source for a thermal power generation system. A direct vapor generation solar organic Rankine cycle system using phase change material storage was analyzed in the present study. The overall system consisted of an arrangement of evacuated flat plate [...] Read more.
Solar energy is a potential source for a thermal power generation system. A direct vapor generation solar organic Rankine cycle system using phase change material storage was analyzed in the present study. The overall system consisted of an arrangement of evacuated flat plate collectors, a phase-change-material-based thermal storage tank, a turbine, a water-cooled condenser, and an organic fluid pump. The MATLAB programming environment was used to develop the thermodynamic model of the whole system. The thermal storage tank was modeled using the finite difference method and the results were validated against experimental work carried out in the past. The hourly weather data of Karachi, Pakistan, was used to carry out the dynamic simulation of the system on a weekly, monthly, and annual basis. The impact of phase change material storage on the enhancement of the overall system performance during the charging and discharging modes was also evaluated. The annual organic Rankine cycle efficiency, system efficiency, and net power output were observed to be 12.16%, 9.38%, and 26.8 kW, respectively. The spring and autumn seasons showed better performance of the phase change material storage system compared to the summer and winter seasons. The rise in working fluid temperature, the fall in phase change material temperature, and the amount of heat stored by the thermal storage were found to be at a maximum in September, while their values became a minimum in February. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Temperature Thermodynamic Power Cycles)
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Open AccessArticle
Numerical Modeling of Ejector and Development of Improved Methods for the Design of Ejector-Assisted Refrigeration System
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5835; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215835 - 09 Nov 2020
Viewed by 524
Abstract
An ejector is a simple mechanical device that can be integrated with power generation or the refrigeration cycle to enhance their performance. Owing to the complex flow behavior in the ejector, the performance prediction of the ejector is done by numerical simulations. However, [...] Read more.
An ejector is a simple mechanical device that can be integrated with power generation or the refrigeration cycle to enhance their performance. Owing to the complex flow behavior in the ejector, the performance prediction of the ejector is done by numerical simulations. However, to evaluate the performance of an ejector integrated power cycle or refrigeration cycle, the need for simpler and more reliable thermodynamic models to estimate the performance of the ejector persists. This research, therefore, aims at developing a single mathematical correlation that can predict the ejector performance with reasonable accuracy. The proposed correlation relates the entrainment ratio and the pressure rise across the ejector to the area ratio and the mass flow rate of the primary flow. R141b is selected as the ejector refrigerant, and the results obtained through the proposed correlation are validated through numerical solutions. The comparison between the analytical and numerical with experimental results provided an error of less than 8.4% and 4.29%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Temperature Thermodynamic Power Cycles)
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Open AccessArticle
Exergetic, Economic and Exergo-Environmental Analysis of Bottoming Power Cycles Operating with CO2-Based Binary Mixture
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5080; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195080 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 738
Abstract
This study focused on investigating the bottoming power cycles operating with CO2-based binary mixture, taking into account exergetic, economic and exergo-environmental impact indices. The main intent is to assess the benefits of employing a CO2-based mixture working fluid in [...] Read more.
This study focused on investigating the bottoming power cycles operating with CO2-based binary mixture, taking into account exergetic, economic and exergo-environmental impact indices. The main intent is to assess the benefits of employing a CO2-based mixture working fluid in closed Brayton bottoming power cycles in comparison with pure CO2 working fluid. Firstly, selection criteria for the choice of suitable additive compound for CO2-based binary mixture is delineated and the composition of the binary mixture is decided based on required cycle minimum temperature. The decided CO2-C7H8 binary mixture with a 0.9 mole fraction of CO2 is analyzed in two cycle configurations: Simple regenerative cycle (SRC) and Partial heating cycle (PHC). Comparative analysis among two configurations with selected working fluid are carried out. Thermodynamic analyses at varying cycle pressure ratio shows that cycle with CO2-C7H8 mixture shows maximum power output and exergy efficiency at rather higher cycle pressure ratio compared to pure CO2 power cycles. PHC with CO2-C7H8 mixture shows 28.68% increment in exergy efficiency with the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) 21.62% higher than pure CO2 PHC. Whereas, SRC with CO2-C7H8 mixture shows 25.17% increment in exergy efficiency with LCOE 57.14% higher than pure CO2 SRC. Besides showing lower economic value, cycles with a CO2-C7H8 mixture saves larger CO2 emissions and also shows greater exergo-environmental impact improvement and plant sustainability index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Temperature Thermodynamic Power Cycles)
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