# Waste Heat Recovery from Diesel Engine Exhaust Using a Single-Screw Expander Organic Rankine Cycle System: Experimental Investigation of Exergy Destruction

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

_{2}, particulate matter, and other hydrocarbons, have rekindled interest in the development of energy-efficient and cleaner propulsion system for vehicles [1]. Moreover, reduction of the fuel consumption and the amount of greenhouse gases whilst increasing the mechanical performance of ICEs has been the focal point of research in the automotive sector [2]. In ICEs, only about 1/3 of the input fuel energy is converted into useful power [3]; the remainder, amounting to almost 40%, is wasted from the engine exhaust [4]. The harnessing of this enormous waste heat from ICEs can lead to higher efficiencies of the vehicle as well as reductions in global warming [5].

^{2}, and 2.62 MJ/m

^{3}, respectively.

## 2. System Description and Test Rig

#### 2.1. System Description

#### 2.2. Experimental Test Rig

## 3. Data Processing

_{Ex}is defined as the ratio of the product and fuel exergy. In an ORC system the output is turbine power (i.e., P

_{output}), while the input is P

_{pump}and $E{\dot{x}}_{exhaust}$. Therefore, ƞ

_{ex}is defined as in Equation (1):

## 4. Results and Discussion

## 5. Conclusions

- The exergy losses of the evaporator are almost 60 kW at different evaporation pressures; the corresponding exergy loss rate is from 69.1% to 65.1% and accounts for the most of the total exergy loss rate.
- The expander’s maximum shaft efficiency and exergetic efficiency are 49.8% and 38.4%, respectively. Increasing the performance of the expander can increase the power output, and then the system’s performance is increased also.
- The exergy losses and exergy loss rate of the pump and pipe are less than 0.5 kW and 1%, respectively, the effects of which on the system’s performance can be ignored.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Appendix A

#### Appendix A.1. Evaporator

#### Appendix A.2. Pipe

#### Appendix A.3. Expander

#### Appendix A.4. Condenser

#### Appendix A.5. Pump

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**Figure 1.**Photo of a single-screw expander. Reprinted with permission. Elsevier, 2020 [9].

**Figure 2.**Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system diagram. Reprinted with permission. Elsevier, 2020 [9].

**Figure 3.**ORC system prototype. 1. Tank; 2. Pump; 3. Check valve; 4. Evaporator; 5. Diesel engine; 6. Expander; 7. Eddy current dynamometer.

Parameters | Values |
---|---|

ORC working fluid | R123 |

Compressor and turbine isentropic efficiency | 0.80 |

Heat source temperature | 485 °C |

Maximum heat available | 248 kW |

ORC evaporation pressure | 1300—1600 kPa |

Condensing temperature | 48.7 ∼ 55.4 °C |

Reference state (T_{o} and P_{o}) | 35 °C/101 kPa |

Component | Characteristics |
---|---|

Expander | Single-screw expander with CP type |

Diameter of screw and gaterotor: 155 × 10^{−3} m | |

Center distance: 124 × 10^{−3} m | |

Grave number of screws: 6 | |

Tooth number of gaterotor: 11 | |

Evaporator | Shell and tube heat exchanger with spiral titanium tube and baffles |

Overall dimensions: Φ 500 × 10^{−3} m × 1500 × 10^{−3} m | |

Heat exchange area: 12 m^{2} | |

Heat input capacity: 152 kW | |

Condenser | Aluminum multi-channel parallel type condenser with 2 tube sides |

Overall dimensions: (980 × 10^{−3} m) × (980 × 10^{−3} m) × (1255 × 10^{−3} m) | |

Heat transfer area in air side: 90 m^{2} | |

Heat rejection capacity: 150 kW | |

Pump | GRUNDFOS multi-stage centrifugal pump: CR5-32 |

Designed volume flow: 2.98 m^{3}/h | |

Designed head: 205 m |

Parameters | Instrument | Accuracy | Full Scale |
---|---|---|---|

Temperature | PT100 | ±0.5 °C | −80 ∼ 300 °C |

N-type | ±1.5 °C | 0 ∼ 800 °C | |

Pressure | SMP131 | ±0.5% | 0 ∼ 2 MPa |

Mass flow rate | Rotameter of H250 | ±1.0% | 25 ∼ 100 L/min |

Oil consumption meter of FC2210 | ±0.4% | 0.1 ∼ 2 kg/min | |

Thermal gas mass flow meter of 20N150 | ±1% | 0 ∼ 2400 kg/h | |

Torque | GW40 eddy current dynamometer | ±0.2% | 0 ∼ 160 N × m |

Rotational speed | GW40 eddy current dynamometer | ±1 rpm | 0 ∼ 10,000 rpm |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhang, Y.; Lei, B.; Masaud, Z.; Imran, M.; Wu, Y.; Liu, J.; Qin, X.; Muhammad, H.A. Waste Heat Recovery from Diesel Engine Exhaust Using a Single-Screw Expander Organic Rankine Cycle System: Experimental Investigation of Exergy Destruction. *Energies* **2020**, *13*, 5914.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225914

**AMA Style**

Zhang Y, Lei B, Masaud Z, Imran M, Wu Y, Liu J, Qin X, Muhammad HA. Waste Heat Recovery from Diesel Engine Exhaust Using a Single-Screw Expander Organic Rankine Cycle System: Experimental Investigation of Exergy Destruction. *Energies*. 2020; 13(22):5914.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225914

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhang, Yeqiang, Biao Lei, Zubair Masaud, Muhammad Imran, Yuting Wu, Jinping Liu, Xiaoding Qin, and Hafiz Ali Muhammad. 2020. "Waste Heat Recovery from Diesel Engine Exhaust Using a Single-Screw Expander Organic Rankine Cycle System: Experimental Investigation of Exergy Destruction" *Energies* 13, no. 22: 5914.
https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225914