Special Issue "Selected Papers from ISCP 2019—XXIV International Symposium on Combustion Processes"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Thermal Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Tadeáš Ochodek
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Guest Editor
Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic
Dr. Emmanouil Karampinis
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Greece
Dr. Artur Pozarlik
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Engineering Technology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is dedicated to the XXIV Symposium on Combustion Processes (23–25 September Wrocław, Poland), which is an official symposium of the Polish Section of the Combustion Institute that takes place every two years. The XXIV Symposium will focus on the following topics:

  • Stationary combustion systems in mega and nano scale and their emissions—generation, reduction, problems;
  • Advanced combustion technologies and renewable energy sources;
  • Diagnostics in combustion systems;
  • Fire and detonations, explosions, and supersonic combustion;
  • Generation, storage, and utilization of hydrogen;
  • Engines and gas turbines;
  • Modelling of combustion processes, including kinetics and industrial applications;
  • Other concepts including assisted combustion (plasmas, electric, and magnetic fields), catalysis, fuel synthesis;
  • Use of by-products of combustion processes;
  • Thermal valorization of solid fuels;
  • Zero-emission combustion technologies;
  • Industry perspectives in combustion.

The submission of the excellent-quality papers in the aforementioned areas is highly encouraged.

Prof. Dr. Tadeáš Ochodek
Dr. Emmanouil Karampinis
Dr. Artur Pozarlik
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • combustion
  • combustion systems
  • combustion processes
  • ignition
  • fire and detonations
  • explosions
  • supersonic combustion
  • internal combustion (IC) engines
  • gas turbines
  • modeling of combustion processes
  • plasma assisted combustion
  • hydrogen generation
  • hydrogen storage
  • combustion of hydrogen
  • hydrates
  • chemical loop combustion
  • torrefaction
  • hydrothermal carbonization
  • pyrolysis
  • gasification
  • use of by-products of combustion processes

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Article
Plasma Assisted Combustion as a Cost-Effective Way for Balancing of Intermittent Sources: Techno-Economic Assessment for 200 MWel Power Unit
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5056; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195056 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Due to the increasing installed power of the intermittent renewable energy sources in the European Union, increasing the operation flexibility of the generating units in the system is necessary. This is particularly important for systems with relatively large installed power of wind and [...] Read more.
Due to the increasing installed power of the intermittent renewable energy sources in the European Union, increasing the operation flexibility of the generating units in the system is necessary. This is particularly important for systems with relatively large installed power of wind and solar. Plasma technologies can be used for that purpose. Nonetheless, the wide implementation of such technology should be economically justified. This paper shows that the use of plasma systems for increasing the flexibility of power units can be economically feasible, based on the results of a net present value analysis. The cost of the installation itself had a marginal effect on the results of the net present value analysis. Based on the performed analysis, the ability to lower the technical minimum of the power unit and the relationship between such a technical minimum and the installed power of a plasma system can be considered decisive factors influencing the economics of the investment for such an installation. Further research on better means of prediction of the minimum attainable load, which would allow determining the influence of implementation of a plasma system, is recommended. This will be the decisive factor behind future decisions regarding investing in such systems. Full article
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Article
Determination of High Temperature Corrosion Rates of Steam Boiler Evaporators Using Continuous Measurements of Flue Gas Composition and Neural Networks
Energies 2020, 13(12), 3134; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13123134 - 17 Jun 2020
Viewed by 556
Abstract
The use of low-emission combustion techniques in pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers are usually associated with the formation of a reduced-gas atmosphere near evaporator walls. This increases the risk of high temperature (low oxygen) corrosion processes in coal-fired boilers. The identification of the dynamics [...] Read more.
The use of low-emission combustion techniques in pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers are usually associated with the formation of a reduced-gas atmosphere near evaporator walls. This increases the risk of high temperature (low oxygen) corrosion processes in coal-fired boilers. The identification of the dynamics and the locations of these processes, and minimizing negative consequences are essential for power plant operation. This paper presents the diagnostic system for determining corrosion risks, based on continuous measurements of flue gas composition in the boundary layer of the combustion chamber, and artificial intelligence techniques. Experience from the implementation of these measurements on the OP-230 hard coal-fired boiler, to identify the corrosion hazard of one of the evaporator walls, has been thoroughly described. The results obtained indicate that the continuous controlling of the concentrations of O2 and CO near the water wall, in combination with the use of neural networks, allows for the forecasting of the corrosion rate of the evaporator. The correlation between flue gas composition and corrosion rate has been demonstrated. At the same time, the analysis of the possibilities of significantly simplifying the measurement system by using neural networks was carried out. Full article
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Article
Influence of Torrefaction and Pelletizing of Sawdust on the Design Parameters of a Fixed Bed Gasifier
Energies 2020, 13(11), 3018; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13113018 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 932
Abstract
Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers is a well-known technology, with its origins dating back to the beginning of 20th century. It is a technology with good prospects, in terms of small scale, decentralized power co-generation. However, the understanding of the process [...] Read more.
Gasification of biomass in fixed bed gasifiers is a well-known technology, with its origins dating back to the beginning of 20th century. It is a technology with good prospects, in terms of small scale, decentralized power co-generation. However, the understanding of the process is still not fully developed. Therefore, assessment of the changes in the design of a gasifier is typically performed with extensive prototyping stage, thus introducing significant cost. This study presents experimental results of gasification of a single pellet and bed of particles of raw and torrefied wood. The procedure can be used for obtaining design parameters of a fixed bed gasifier. Results of two suits of experiments, namely pyrolysis and CO2 gasification are presented. Moreover, results of pyrolysis of pellets are compared against a numerical model, developed for thermally thick particles. Pyrolysis time, predicted by model, was in good agreement with experimental results, despite some differences in the time when half of the initial mass was converted. Conversion times for CO2 gasification were much longer, despite higher temperature of the process, indicating importance of the reduction reactions. Overall, the obtained results could be helpful in developing a complete model of gasification of thermally thick particles in a fixed bed. Full article
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Article
HTC of Wet Residues of the Brewing Process: Comprehensive Characterization of Produced Beer, Spent Grain and Valorized Residues
Energies 2020, 13(8), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13082058 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 977
Abstract
Steady consumption of beer results in a steady output of residues, i.e., brewer’s spent grain (BSG). Its valorization, using hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) seems sensible. However, a significant knowledge gap regarding the variability of this residue and its influence on the valorization process and [...] Read more.
Steady consumption of beer results in a steady output of residues, i.e., brewer’s spent grain (BSG). Its valorization, using hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) seems sensible. However, a significant knowledge gap regarding the variability of this residue and its influence on the valorization process and its potential use in biorefineries exists. This study attempted to fill this gap by characterization of BSG in conjunction with the main product (beer), taking into accounts details of the brewing process. Moreover, different methods to assess the performance of HTC were investigated. Overall, the differences in terms of the fuel properties of both types of spent grain were much less stark, in comparison to the differences between the respective beers. The use of HTC as a pretreatment of BSG for subsequent use as a biorefinery feedstock can be considered beneficial. HTC was helpful in uniformization and improvement of the fuel properties. A significant decrease in the oxygen content and O/C ratio and improved grindability was achieved. The Weber method proved to be feasible for HTC productivity assessment for commercial installations, giving satisfactory results for most of the cases, contrary to traditional ash tracer method, which resulted in significant overestimations of the mass yield. Full article
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Article
Biomass Thermochemical Conversion via Pyrolysis with Integrated CO2 Capture
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051050 - 26 Feb 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
The presented work is focused on biomass thermochemical conversion with integrated CO2 capture. The main aim of this study was the in-depth investigation of the impact of pyrolysis temperature (500, 600 and 700 °C) and CaO sorbent addition on the chemical and [...] Read more.
The presented work is focused on biomass thermochemical conversion with integrated CO2 capture. The main aim of this study was the in-depth investigation of the impact of pyrolysis temperature (500, 600 and 700 °C) and CaO sorbent addition on the chemical and physical properties of obtained char and syngas. Under the effect of the pyrolysis temperature, the properties of biomass chars were gradually changed, and this was confirmed by examination using thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and porosimetry methods. The chars were characterised by a noticeable carbon content (two times at 700 °C) resulting in a lower O/C ratio. The calculated combustion indexes indicated the better combustible properties of chars. In addition, structural morphology changes were observed. However, the increasing pyrolysis temperature resulted in changes of solid products; the differences of char properties were not significant in the range of 500 to 700 °C. Syngas was analysed using a gas chromatograph. The following main components were identified: CO, CO2, CH4, H2 and C2H4, C2H6, C3H6, C3H8. A significant impact of CaO on CO2 adsorption was found. The concentration of CO2 in syngas decreased with increased temperature, and the highest decrease occurred in the presence of CaO from above 60% to below 30% at 600 °C. Full article
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Article
Development of Experimental Apparatus for Fire Resistance Test of Rechargeable Energy Storage System in xEV
Energies 2020, 13(2), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13020465 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 693
Abstract
To secure the safety of xEV (all types of electrical vehicles), the United Nations released Global Technical Regulation No. 20, “Global Technical Regulations on the EVS (Electric Vehicle Safety)” in March 2018. The fire resistance test of the rechargeable energy storage system [...] Read more.
To secure the safety of xEV (all types of electrical vehicles), the United Nations released Global Technical Regulation No. 20, “Global Technical Regulations on the EVS (Electric Vehicle Safety)” in March 2018. The fire resistance test of the rechargeable energy storage system (REESS) describes an experimental procedure to evaluate the safety performance—specifically, whether passengers would have sufficient time to escape from the xEV before the explosion of the battery in a fire. There are two options for component-based REESS fire resistance tests: a gasoline pool fire and a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) burner. This study describes the process for optimizing the specifications of the fire resistance test apparatus for xEV batteries using an LPG burner, which was first proposed by the Republic of Korea. Based on the results of the measurement and a computational fluid dynamics analysis of the prototype test apparatus, new equipment designs were proposed by determining the nozzle spacing and number, fuel flow rate, and experimental conditions. To cover a wide range of xEV battery sizes, a final test apparatus consisting of 625 burners was selected. For three different battery sizes, it was possible to satisfy the temperature requirements, ranging from 800 to 1000 °C, of the GTR fire resistance test. The final apparatus design developed in the present study has been included in GTR No. 20 for EVS since March 2018. Full article
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Article
Treatment of Liquid By-Products of Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC) of Agricultural Digestate Using Membrane Separation
Energies 2020, 13(1), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010262 - 05 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Agriculture affects both the quantity and the quality of water available for other purposes, which becomes problematic, especially during increasingly frequent severe droughts. This requires tapping into the resources that are typically neglected. One such resource is a by-product of anaerobic digestion, in [...] Read more.
Agriculture affects both the quantity and the quality of water available for other purposes, which becomes problematic, especially during increasingly frequent severe droughts. This requires tapping into the resources that are typically neglected. One such resource is a by-product of anaerobic digestion, in which moisture content typically exceeds 90%. Application of hydrothermal carbonization process (HTC) to this residue could partially remove organic and inorganic material, improve dewatering, decrease the overall solid mass, sanitize the digestate, change its properties, and eliminate problems related with emissions of odors from the installation. However, a significant gap still exists in terms of the dewatering of the hydrochars and the composition of the effluents. This work presents results of experimental investigation focused on the removal of organic compounds from the HTC effluent. Results of qualitative and quantitative analysis of liquid by-products of HTC of the agricultural digestate showed that acetic acid, 3-pyridinol, 1-hydroxyacetone, and 1,3-propanediol were the main liquid organic products of the process. Application of ultrafiltration process with the use of 10 kDa membrane for liquid HTC by-product treatment allows for the reduction of chemical oxygen demand up to 30%, biological oxygen demand up to 10%, and dissolved organic carbon up to 21%. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Modifiers and Method of Application on Fine-Coal Combustion
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4572; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234572 - 30 Nov 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
This research work presents the results of studies on the effect of modifiers comprising the salts CuSO4·2H2O, NaCl, NH4Cl, MgSO4·7H2O, CaCl2, and urea at various concentrations on the combustion of fine [...] Read more.
This research work presents the results of studies on the effect of modifiers comprising the salts CuSO4·2H2O, NaCl, NH4Cl, MgSO4·7H2O, CaCl2, and urea at various concentrations on the combustion of fine coal. The tests were carried out in a 12-kW laboratory boiler equipped with a rotary-grate retort furnace. The emission levels and concentrations of CO, CO2, SO2, NOx, and TOC in the flue gas were measured using analyzers. A modifier composed of 350 ppm Cu, Na, Mg, NH4+, Ca, and urea showed particularly high activity in the combustion of fine coal. The flue-gas levels of CO, NOx, and SO2 were reduced by approximately 9%, 12%, and 10%, respectively, in comparison with the modifier-free sample. In this case, the boiler efficiency also increased from 65% in the tests with no modifier to 76% in the tests with the modifier. The proprietary application system, enabling the modifier to be added in exact amounts to the variable flow of fine coal, is also described. It was found that the use of the modifier in coal combustion tests results in lower emissions of harmful fuel components, a higher amount of heat obtained from the fuel unit mass, lower corrosive impact of the fuels, lower boiler maintenance costs, and extended service life. Full article
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Article
Influence of Constructional-Material Parameters on the Fire Properties of Electric Cables
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4569; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234569 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
The significant number of cables of different materials and construction used extensively in building objects increases their fire load and, therefore, strongly influences safety in the case of fire. The purpose of the study was to identify relevant factors related to the construction [...] Read more.
The significant number of cables of different materials and construction used extensively in building objects increases their fire load and, therefore, strongly influences safety in the case of fire. The purpose of the study was to identify relevant factors related to the construction of electrical cables, and perform a qualitative and quantitative assessment of their influence on specific fire properties, such as heat release and smoke production. Fifteen cables of different construction and materials were studied using the EN 50399 standard test. The analysis was focused on cable constructional-material parameters related to the chemical composition of non-metallic elements and the number and shape of conductors in the cable, as well as the concentric barrier as armor or the copper concentric conductor. The conclusions drawn from the experiments were: (1) Construction, the number of conductors, and the presence of armor or concentric metallic conductors improve the fire properties by forming a barrier against flame penetration through the cable; (2) the use of copper conductors resulted in a decrease of fire parameters compared to cables with aluminum conductors (peakHRRav parameter even four times lower for copper cable); (3) construction material based on non-plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) significantly reduced the fire properties of cables more than halogen-free materials (LS0H) (peakHRRav parameter more than 17 times higher for the fully halogenated cable), which is due to the decomposition process of the material; and (4) no clear relationship between the fire parameters and the cable parameter, χ, was found. Full article
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