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Article

HTC of Wet Residues of the Brewing Process: Comprehensive Characterization of Produced Beer, Spent Grain and Valorized Residues

1
Department of Micro, Nano and Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Norwida 4/6, 50-373 Wrocław, Poland
2
Department of Mechanics, Machines, Devices and Energy Processes, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-373 Wrocław, Poland
3
Department of Chemical Engineering, Shaheed Bhagat Singh State Technical Campus, Ferozepur, Punjab 152004, India
4
Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Wroclaw University of Economics, Komandorska 118/120, 53-345 Wrocław, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Energies 2020, 13(8), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13082058
Received: 30 March 2020 / Revised: 13 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 20 April 2020
Steady consumption of beer results in a steady output of residues, i.e., brewer’s spent grain (BSG). Its valorization, using hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) seems sensible. However, a significant knowledge gap regarding the variability of this residue and its influence on the valorization process and its potential use in biorefineries exists. This study attempted to fill this gap by characterization of BSG in conjunction with the main product (beer), taking into accounts details of the brewing process. Moreover, different methods to assess the performance of HTC were investigated. Overall, the differences in terms of the fuel properties of both types of spent grain were much less stark, in comparison to the differences between the respective beers. The use of HTC as a pretreatment of BSG for subsequent use as a biorefinery feedstock can be considered beneficial. HTC was helpful in uniformization and improvement of the fuel properties. A significant decrease in the oxygen content and O/C ratio and improved grindability was achieved. The Weber method proved to be feasible for HTC productivity assessment for commercial installations, giving satisfactory results for most of the cases, contrary to traditional ash tracer method, which resulted in significant overestimations of the mass yield. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrothermal carbonization; hydrochars; beer; brewers spent grain; pyrolysis hydrothermal carbonization; hydrochars; beer; brewers spent grain; pyrolysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jackowski, M.; Niedzwiecki, L.; Lech, M.; Wnukowski, M.; Arora, A.; Tkaczuk-Serafin, M.; Baranowski, M.; Krochmalny, K.; Veetil, V.K.; Seruga, P.; Trusek, A.; Pawlak-Kruczek, H. HTC of Wet Residues of the Brewing Process: Comprehensive Characterization of Produced Beer, Spent Grain and Valorized Residues. Energies 2020, 13, 2058. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13082058

AMA Style

Jackowski M, Niedzwiecki L, Lech M, Wnukowski M, Arora A, Tkaczuk-Serafin M, Baranowski M, Krochmalny K, Veetil VK, Seruga P, Trusek A, Pawlak-Kruczek H. HTC of Wet Residues of the Brewing Process: Comprehensive Characterization of Produced Beer, Spent Grain and Valorized Residues. Energies. 2020; 13(8):2058. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13082058

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jackowski, Mateusz, Lukasz Niedzwiecki, Magdalena Lech, Mateusz Wnukowski, Amit Arora, Monika Tkaczuk-Serafin, Marcin Baranowski, Krystian Krochmalny, Vivek K. Veetil, Przemysław Seruga, Anna Trusek, and Halina Pawlak-Kruczek. 2020. "HTC of Wet Residues of the Brewing Process: Comprehensive Characterization of Produced Beer, Spent Grain and Valorized Residues" Energies 13, no. 8: 2058. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13082058

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