Special Issue "Advanced Energy Harvesting Technologies"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Electric Vehicles".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 November 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Dibin Zhu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Affiliation: College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Stocker Rd, Exeter EX4 4PY, UK
Interests: energy harvesting; self-powered systems; wireless power transfer

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are inviting submissions to a Special Issue of Energies on the subject area of “Advanced Energy Harvesting Technologies”. Energy harvesting concerns the conversion of unused or wasted energy in an ambient environment into useful electrical energy. It enables small electronic systems such as wireless sensors to become self-powered and potentially completely autonomous. Energy harvesting is now becoming a key enabling technology for widespread and maintenance-free deployment of wireless nodes for future Internet of Things (IoT). Research in energy harvesting covers a wide range of fields from fundamental research in functional materials to system level integration. This Special Issue aims to present state-of-the-art research in a variety of topics with the goal of developing practical energy harvesting solutions. We welcome original research articles which should include rigorous methodology and in-depth discussions to present novel solutions to challenges in relevant fields. Review articles summarising the current state of understanding of a particular topic in the field of energy harvesting are also welcome.

Topics of interest for publication include but are not limited to:

  1. Functional materials for energy harvesting applications;
  2. Modelling and analysis of energy harvesters;
  3. Kinetic energy harvesting, e.g., vibration and flow energy harvesting;
  4. Thermoelectric energy harvesting;
  5. Wearable energy harvesting;
  6. Biochemical and bio-inspired power/energy systems;
  7. RF energy harvesting;
  8. Power management for energy harvesting systems;
  9. Self-powered integrated/embedded sensor systems;
  10. Applications and innovations of energy harvesting systems.

Dr. Dibin Zhu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy harvesting
  • energy conversion
  • functional materials
  • modelling
  • power management
  • autonomous sensors
  • IoT

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Fully Featured Thermal Energy Harvesting Tracker for Wildlife
Energies 2021, 14(19), 6363; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14196363 - 05 Oct 2021
Viewed by 319
Abstract
In this paper, we describe a novel animal-tracking-system, solely powered by thermal energy harvesting. The tracker achieves an outstanding 100 μW of electrical power harvested over an area of only 2 times 20.5cm2, using the temperature difference between [...] Read more.
In this paper, we describe a novel animal-tracking-system, solely powered by thermal energy harvesting. The tracker achieves an outstanding 100 μW of electrical power harvested over an area of only 2 times 20.5cm2, using the temperature difference between the animal’s fur and the environment, with a total weight of 286 g. The steps to enhance the power income are presented and validated in a field-test, using a system that fulfills common tracking-tasks, including GPS with a fix every 1.1 h to 1.5 h, activity and temperature measurements, all data wirelessly transmitted via LoRaWAN at a period of 14 min. Furthermore, we describe our ultra low power design that achieves an overall sleep power consumption of only 8μW and is able to work down to temperature differences of 0.9K applied to the TEGs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Harvesting Technologies)
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Article
Designing a Wind Energy Harvester for Connected Vehicles in Green Cities
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5408; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175408 - 31 Aug 2021
Viewed by 442
Abstract
Electric vehicles (EVs) have recently gained momentum as an integral part of the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) when authorities started expanding their low emission zones (LEZs) in an effort to build green cities with low carbon footprints. Energy is one of the key [...] Read more.
Electric vehicles (EVs) have recently gained momentum as an integral part of the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) when authorities started expanding their low emission zones (LEZs) in an effort to build green cities with low carbon footprints. Energy is one of the key requirements of EVs, not only to support the smooth and sustainable operation of EVs, but also to ensure connectivity between the vehicle and the infrastructure in the critical times such as disaster recovery operation. In this context, renewable energy sources (such as wind energy) have an important role to play in the automobile sector towards designing energy-harvesting electric vehicles (EH-EV) to mitigate energy reliance on the national grid. In this article, a novel approach is presented to harness energy from a small-scale wind turbine due to vehicle mobility to support the communication primitives in electric vehicles which enable plenty of IoV use cases. The harvested power is then processed through a regulation circuitry to consequently achieve the desired power supply for the end load (i.e., battery or super capacitor). The suitable orientation for optimum conversion efficiency is proposed through ANSYS-based aerodynamics analysis. The voltage-induced by the DC generator is 35 V under the no-load condition while it is 25 V at a rated current of 6.9 A at full-load, yielding a supply of 100 W (on constant voltage) at a speed of 90 mph for nominal battery charging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Harvesting Technologies)
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Article
Self-Oscillating Boost Converter of Wiegand Pulse Voltage for Self-Powered Modules
Energies 2021, 14(17), 5373; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14175373 - 29 Aug 2021
Viewed by 452
Abstract
This paper introduces a new method of electricity generation using a Wiegand sensor. The Wiegand sensor consists of a magnetic wire and a pickup coil wound around it. This sensor generates a pulse voltage of approximately 5 V and 20 µs width as [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a new method of electricity generation using a Wiegand sensor. The Wiegand sensor consists of a magnetic wire and a pickup coil wound around it. This sensor generates a pulse voltage of approximately 5 V and 20 µs width as an induced voltage in the pickup coil. The aim of this study is to generate a DC voltage of 5 V from the sensor, which is expected to be used as a power source in self-powered devices and battery-less modules. We report on the design and verification of a self-oscillating boost converter circuit in this paper. A DC voltage obtained by rectifying and smoothing the pulse voltage generated from the Wiegand sensor was boosted by the circuit. A stable DC output voltage in the order of 5 V for use as a power supply in electronics modules was successfully obtained. A quantitative analysis of the power generated by the Wiegand sensor revealed a suitable voltage-current range for application in self-powered devices and battery-less modules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Harvesting Technologies)
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Article
Experimental and Numerical Characterization of a Gravitational Electromagnetic Energy Harvester
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4622; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154622 - 30 Jul 2021
Viewed by 395
Abstract
In this paper, the dynamic experimental identification of an inductive energy harvester for the conversion of vibration energy into electric power is presented. Recent advances and requirements in structural monitoring and vehicle diagnostic allow defining Autonomous Internet of Things (AIoT) systems that combine [...] Read more.
In this paper, the dynamic experimental identification of an inductive energy harvester for the conversion of vibration energy into electric power is presented. Recent advances and requirements in structural monitoring and vehicle diagnostic allow defining Autonomous Internet of Things (AIoT) systems that combine wireless sensor nodes with energy harvester devices properly designed considering the specific duty cycle. The proposed generator was based on an asymmetrical magnetic suspension and was addressed to structural monitoring applications on vehicles. The design of the interfaces of the electric, magnetic, and structural coupled systems forming the harvester are described including dynamic modeling and simulation. Finally, the results of laboratory tests were compared with the harvester dynamic response calculated through numerical simulations, and a good correspondence was obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Harvesting Technologies)
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Article
Numerical Simulation of Acoustic Resonance Enhancement for Mean Flow Wind Energy Harvester as Well as Suppression for Pipeline
Energies 2021, 14(6), 1725; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14061725 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Acoustic resonance in closed side branches should be enhanced to improve the efficiency of wind energy harvesting equipment or thermo-acoustic engine. However, in gas pipeline transportation systems, this kind of acoustic resonance should be suppressed to avoid fatigue damage to the pipeline. Realizable [...] Read more.
Acoustic resonance in closed side branches should be enhanced to improve the efficiency of wind energy harvesting equipment or thermo-acoustic engine. However, in gas pipeline transportation systems, this kind of acoustic resonance should be suppressed to avoid fatigue damage to the pipeline. Realizable k-ε delayed detached eddy simulations (DDES) were conducted to study the effect of different branch pipe shapes on acoustic resonance. At some flow velocities, the pressure amplitude of the simulation results is twice as large as that of the experimental results, but the simulation can accurately capture the flow velocity range where acoustic resonance occurs. The results prove the feasibility of the method of the equivalent diameter of the circular cross-section pipe and the square cross-section pipe to predict acoustic resonance. The pressure pulsation amplitude of acoustic resonance in a square cross-section pipe is significantly increased than that in a circular square cross-section pipe, indicating that the square cross-section branch configuration can be more conducive to improving the efficiency of wind energy harvesting. The influence of the angle between the branch and the main pipe on the acoustic resonance was studied for the first time, which has an obvious influence on the acoustic resonance. It is found that the design of a square wind energy harvester is better than that of a circular one; meanwhile, changing the branch angle can increase or suppress the acoustic resonance, which can improve the utilization efficiency of the acoustic resonance and provide a new method for suppressing the acoustic resonance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Harvesting Technologies)
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Article
Quad-Trapezoidal-Leg Orthoplanar Spring with Piezoelectric Plate for Enhancing the Performances of Vibration Energy Harvester
Energies 2020, 13(22), 5919; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13225919 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 367
Abstract
To validate the potentials of unequal-length section-varied geometry in developing a orthoplanar spring-based piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH), a modified spring with quad-trapezoidal-leg configuration is designed, analyzed, and fabricated. A basic quad-trapezoidal-leg orthoplanar spring (QTOPS) is theoretically analyzed, and the structural effective stress [...] Read more.
To validate the potentials of unequal-length section-varied geometry in developing a orthoplanar spring-based piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH), a modified spring with quad-trapezoidal-leg configuration is designed, analyzed, and fabricated. A basic quad-trapezoidal-leg orthoplanar spring (QTOPS) is theoretically analyzed, and the structural effective stress and eigenfrequency are formulated to determine the main dimension parameters. Then, an improved QTOPS with additional intermediations is constructed and simulated. Porotypes with different leg geometries and mass configurations are fabricated and tested. The results of QTOPS and a conventional rectangular-shaped spring are compared. It is verified that the proposed approach provides the structure with an enlarged effective stress and lower resonant frequency, which makes it more suitable to construct a high-performance PVEH than the orthoplanar spring with equal-length or rectangular legs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Harvesting Technologies)
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Review

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Review
A Review on Kinetic Energy Harvesting with Focus on 3D Printed Electromagnetic Vibration Harvesters
Energies 2021, 14(21), 6961; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14216961 (registering DOI) - 22 Oct 2021
Viewed by 163
Abstract
The increasing amount of Internet of Things (IoT) devices and wearables require a reliable energy source. Energy harvesting can power these devices without changing batteries. Three-dimensional printing allows us to manufacture tailored harvesting devices in an easy and fast way. This paper presents [...] Read more.
The increasing amount of Internet of Things (IoT) devices and wearables require a reliable energy source. Energy harvesting can power these devices without changing batteries. Three-dimensional printing allows us to manufacture tailored harvesting devices in an easy and fast way. This paper presents the development of hybrid and non-hybrid 3D printed electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters. Various harvesting approaches, their utilised geometry, functional principle, power output and the applied printing processes are shown. The gathered harvesters are analysed, challenges examined and research gaps in the field identified. The advantages and challenges of 3D printing harvesters are discussed. Reported applications and strategies to improve the performance of printed harvesting devices are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Harvesting Technologies)
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Review
Triboelectric Nanogenerators for Energy Harvesting in Ocean: A Review on Application and Hybridization
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5600; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185600 - 07 Sep 2021
Viewed by 553
Abstract
With recent advancements in technology, energy storage for gadgets and sensors has become a challenging task. Among several alternatives, the triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) have been recognized as one of the most reliable methods to cure conventional battery innovation’s inadequacies. A TENG transfers mechanical [...] Read more.
With recent advancements in technology, energy storage for gadgets and sensors has become a challenging task. Among several alternatives, the triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) have been recognized as one of the most reliable methods to cure conventional battery innovation’s inadequacies. A TENG transfers mechanical energy from the surrounding environment into power. Natural energy resources can empower TENGs to create a clean and conveyed energy network, which can finally facilitate the development of different remote gadgets. In this review paper, TENGs targeting various environmental energy resources are systematically summarized. First, a brief introduction is given to the ocean waves’ principles, as well as the conventional energy harvesting devices. Next, different TENG systems are discussed in details. Furthermore, hybridization of TENGs with other energy innovations such as solar cells, electromagnetic generators, piezoelectric nanogenerators and magnetic intensity are investigated as an efficient technique to improve their performance. Advantages and disadvantages of different TENG structures are explored. A high level overview is provided on the connection of TENGs with structural health monitoring, artificial intelligence and the path forward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Energy Harvesting Technologies)
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