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Special Issue "Computational Modelling of Wave Energy Converters"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "B2: Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021) | Viewed by 5301

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Emiliano Renzi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leics LE11 3TU, UK
Interests: wave–structure interaction; wave energy conversion; linear and nonlinear waves; applied mathematics
Dr. Simone Michele
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Engineering, Computing and Mathematics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
Interests: wave energy conversion; linear and nonlinear waves; dynamical systems; applied mathematics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wave energy is an abundant renewable energy resource. However, such energy is not currently harnessed because of the steep cost and low efficiency of wave energy converters. On the design side, the sheer size and complexity of many proposed technologies has hampered the development of affordable devices. On the modelling side, one fundamental problem is how to reliably calculate wave loads and device dynamics in highly nonlinear waves and extreme conditions. This Special Issue welcomes papers addressing the conceptual development of novel and potentially disruptive device archetypes, as well as the development of computational models to characterise device hydrodynamics in nonlinear seas and under extreme wave loading. Contributions are also welcome on modelling innovative hybrid wind–wave energy systems, as well as environmental impacts of wave farms. We also welcome review papers on the abovementioned topics.

Dr. Emiliano Renzi
Dr. Simone Michele
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Wave energy system modelling
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Extreme condition modelling
  • Hybrid wind–wave energy systems
  • Environmental modelling
  • Wave farms

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Wave Energy Extraction by Flexible Floaters
Energies 2020, 13(23), 6167; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236167 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
We present a novel mathematical model to investigate the extraction of wave power by flexible floaters. The model is based on the method of dry modes, coupled with a matched eigenfunction expansion. Our model results compare satisfactorily with preliminary data obtained from a [...] Read more.
We present a novel mathematical model to investigate the extraction of wave power by flexible floaters. The model is based on the method of dry modes, coupled with a matched eigenfunction expansion. Our model results compare satisfactorily with preliminary data obtained from a demonstrator device, developed at the University of Groningen. We show that the role of elasticity is to increase the number of resonant frequencies with respect to a rigid body, which has a positive effect on wave power output. The mathematical model is then extended to irregular incident waves, described by a JONSWAP spectrum. Our results show that the peak capture factors decrease in irregular waves, as compared to the monochromatic case. However, the system becomes more efficient at non-resonant frequencies. This work highlights the need to scale-up experimental investigations on flexible wave energy converters, which are still a small minority, compared to those on rigid converters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Modelling of Wave Energy Converters)
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Article
Far-Field Maximal Power Absorption of a Bulging Cylindrical Wave Energy Converter
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5499; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205499 - 20 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1085
Abstract
The maximal power that is absorbed by a wave energy converter can be estimated from the far-field behavior of the waves that are radiated by the device. For realistic estimates, constraints must be used to enforce restrictions on the set of admissible motions [...] Read more.
The maximal power that is absorbed by a wave energy converter can be estimated from the far-field behavior of the waves that are radiated by the device. For realistic estimates, constraints must be used to enforce restrictions on the set of admissible motions when deriving the maximal absorption width. This work is dedicated to the numerical computation of the maximal absorption width under constraints for devices with several non-trivial degrees of freedom. In particular, the method is applied to a model of SBM Offshore’s S3 wave energy converter, a bulging horizontal cylinder. The results are compared with a more classical approach, which consists of computing the linear dynamic response of the wave energy converter interacting with the waves. The far-field maximal absorption width can be seen as an upper bound to evaluate what would be the power captured by a perfect control strategy. The method also shows that the absorption width of the S3 wave energy converter is larger for wavelengths that are smaller than the device length. In practice, this means that S3 wave energy converters will be longer than the maximal wavelength to be captured on the targeted production site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Modelling of Wave Energy Converters)
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Article
Modelling of a Three-Body Hinge-Barge Wave Energy Device Using System Identification Techniques
Energies 2020, 13(19), 5129; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13195129 - 02 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 650
Abstract
In order to increase the prevalence of wave energy converters (WECs), they must provide energy at competitive prices, especially when compared with other renewable energy sources. Thus, it is imperative to develop control system technologies that are able to maximize energy extraction from [...] Read more.
In order to increase the prevalence of wave energy converters (WECs), they must provide energy at competitive prices, especially when compared with other renewable energy sources. Thus, it is imperative to develop control system technologies that are able to maximize energy extraction from waves, such that the delivered energy cost is reduced. An important part of a model-based controller is the model that it uses. System identification techniques (SITs) provide methodologies to get accurate dynamic models from input-output data. However, even though these techniques are well developed in other application areas, they are seldom used in the context of WECs. This paper proposes several strategies based on SIT to get a linear time-invariant model for a three-body hinge-barge wave energy device using experimental data. The main advantage of the model obtained with this methodology, against other methods such as linear potential theory, is that this model remains valid even for relatively large waves and WEC displacements. Other advantages of this model are its simplicity and the low computational resources that it needs. Numerical simulations are carried out to show the validation of the obtained model against recorded experimental data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Modelling of Wave Energy Converters)
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Article
Time-Splitting Coupling of WaveDyn with OpenFOAM by Fidelity Limit Identified from a WEC in Extreme Waves
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3431; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133431 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 995
Abstract
Survivability assessment is the complexity compromising Wave energy development. The present study develops a hybrid model aiming to reduce computational power while maintaining accuracy for survivability assessment of a Point-Absorber (PA) Wave Energy Converter (WEC) in extreme Wave Structure Interaction (WSI). This method [...] Read more.
Survivability assessment is the complexity compromising Wave energy development. The present study develops a hybrid model aiming to reduce computational power while maintaining accuracy for survivability assessment of a Point-Absorber (PA) Wave Energy Converter (WEC) in extreme Wave Structure Interaction (WSI). This method couples the fast inviscid linear potential flow time-domain model WaveDyn (1.2, DNV-GL, Bristol, UK) with the fully nonlinear viscous Navier–Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code OpenFOAM (4.2, OpenFOAM.org, London, UK). The coupling technique enables the simulation to change between codes, depending on an indicator relating to wave steepness identified as a function of the confidence in the linear model solution. During the CFD part of the simulation, the OpenFOAM solution is returned to WaveDyn via an additional load term, thus including viscous effects. Developments ensure a satisfactory initialisation of CFD simulation to be achieved from a ‘hot-start’ time, where the wave-field is developed and the device is in motion. The coupled model successfully overcomes identified inaccuracies in the WaveDyn code due to the inviscid assumption and the high computational cost of the OpenFOAM code. Experimental data of a PA response under extreme deterministic events (NewWave) are used to assess WaveDyn’s validity limit as a function of wave steepness, in order to validate CFD code and develop the coupling. The hybrid code demonstrates the applicability of WaveDyn validity limit and shows promising results for long irregular sea-state applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Modelling of Wave Energy Converters)
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Review

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Review
Niche Applications and Flexible Devices for Wave Energy Conversion: A Review
Energies 2021, 14(20), 6537; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14206537 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
We review wave energy conversion technologies for niche applications, i.e., kilowatt-scale systems that allow for more agile design, faster deployment and easier operation than utility scale systems. The wave energy converters for niche markets analysed in this paper are classified into breakwater-integrated, hybrid, [...] Read more.
We review wave energy conversion technologies for niche applications, i.e., kilowatt-scale systems that allow for more agile design, faster deployment and easier operation than utility scale systems. The wave energy converters for niche markets analysed in this paper are classified into breakwater-integrated, hybrid, devices for special applications. We show that niche markets are emerging as a very vibrant landscape, with several such technologies having now achieved operational stage, and others undergoing full-scale sea trials. This review also includes flexible devices, which started as niche applications in the 1980s and are now close to commercial maturity. We discuss the strong potential of flexible devices in reducing costs and improving survivability and reliability of wave energy systems. Finally, we show that the use of WECs in niche applications is supporting the development of utility-scale projects by accumulating field experience, demonstrating success stories of grid integration and building confidence for stakeholders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Modelling of Wave Energy Converters)
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