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Fuel Cell-Based and Hybrid Power Generation Systems Modeling, Volume II

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "D2: Electrochem: Batteries, Fuel Cells, Capacitors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 2178

Special Issue Editor

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Guest Editor
Italian National Research Council (CNR), Department of Engineering, ICT and Technology for Energy and Transport (DIITET), Institute for Advanced Energy Technologies (ITAE), Via Salita S. Lucia sopra Contesse 5, 98126 Messina, Italy
Interests: low temperature fuel cell stack and batteries; design methodologies; testing protocols and numerical simulations; system integration
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Earth’s climate has changed throughout history. Seven cycles of glaciation have taken place in the last 650,000 years, but the current warming trend is of particular significance because it is extremely likely to be the result of using of fossil fuels since the mid-20th century.

In this context, near zero-emission systems based on fuel cell are a potential key factor for the green energy transition.

Therefore, accurate methodologies for fuel cell systems design are becoming increasingly important. Modeling is fundamental for fuel cell and hybrid power system design, where fuel cell is coupled with different power generation devices.

This Special Issue aims to gather research advances in the modeling of fuel-cell-based and hybrid power systems (PV/fuel cell, wind/fuel cell, battery/fuel, and so on). It focuses on the methodologies for mathematical modeling of fuel cell and hybrid systems, by illustrating different approaches to fuel cell technology (PEFC; SOFC, DMFC), system architecture, hybridization level, application (i.e., automotive, stationary, cogeneration, portable), and power management.

The issue will contribute to enrich the background in the field of fuel cell system engineering research, and I am honored to invite you to submit your original work to this Special Issue.

I look forward to receiving your contribution.

Dr. Orazio Barbera
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • fuel cell power system modeling
  • hybrid power system modeling
  • power system
  • automotive
  • portable
  • cogeneration
  • smart grid
  • smart cities
  • mathematical model

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (3 papers)

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6 pages, 188 KiB  
Fuel Cell-Based and Hybrid Power Generation Systems Modelling
by Orazio Barbera
Energies 2024, 17(13), 3340; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17133340 - 8 Jul 2024
Viewed by 270
The World Economic Forum’s Global Risks Report 2022 identifies climate change as a paramount threat to humanity [...] Full article


Jump to: Editorial

21 pages, 4810 KiB  
Assessing Open Circuit Voltage Losses in PEMFCs: A New Methodological Approach
by Francesco Mazzeo, Luca Di Napoli and Massimiliana Carello
Energies 2024, 17(11), 2785; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17112785 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 458
Proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are increasingly used in the automotive sector. A crucial point for estimating the performance of such systems is open-circuit voltage (OCV) losses, among which the most influential are mixed potential, hydrogen crossover, and internal short circuits. These losses [...] Read more.
Proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are increasingly used in the automotive sector. A crucial point for estimating the performance of such systems is open-circuit voltage (OCV) losses, among which the most influential are mixed potential, hydrogen crossover, and internal short circuits. These losses are often overlooked in the modeling of such electrochemical cells, leading to an inaccurate estimation of the real voltage that is calculated starting from the Nernst Equation. An innovative method is presented to estimate the losses based on the division of the membrane into two domains: solid and aqueous. The influence of the macro-parameters (temperature, pressure, and RH) was analyzed for each phenomenon and was linked to the membrane water content. For low levels of PEM hydration, internal short circuits were of the same order of magnitude as hydrogen crossover. The OCV model accuracy was assessed on a commercial stack, used on a vehicle prototype competing in the Shell Eco-Marathon challenge. The data of interest were obtained through laboratory tests and subsequent disassembly of the stack. A PEM thickness of 127 μm was measured corresponding to Nafion 115. For further validation, the model results were compared with data in the literature. Full article
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30 pages, 12144 KiB  
Steady-State and Transient Operation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems with Anode Off-Gas Recirculation within a Highly Constrained Operating Range
by Jan Hollmann and Stephan Kabelac
Energies 2023, 16(23), 7827; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16237827 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 880
Based on a prototype presented in a prior publication, this research investigates the operational characteristics of a methane-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system with anode off-gas recirculation (AOGR) for electrical energy supply on sea-going vessels. The proposed first-principle system model utilizes a [...] Read more.
Based on a prototype presented in a prior publication, this research investigates the operational characteristics of a methane-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system with anode off-gas recirculation (AOGR) for electrical energy supply on sea-going vessels. The proposed first-principle system model utilizes a spatially segmented SOFC stack and lumped balance of plant components validated on the component level to accurately depict the steady-state and transient operating behavior. Five operational limitations are chosen to highlight permissible operating conditions with regard to stack and pre-reformer degradation. Steady-state operating maps are presented, emphasizing efficient operating conditions at maximum stack fuel utilization and minimal permissible oxygen-to-carbon ratio. Exemplary transient load changes illustrate increasing system control complexity caused by gas flow delays due to the spatially distributed plant layout. Actuation strategies are presented and underline the need for a top-level model predictive system controller to assure a dynamic and efficient operation within the defined constraints. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Hierarchical Energy Optimization of Fuel Cell and Battery for Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle
Authors: Cong Ji; Elkhatib Kamal
Affiliation: 1. School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 210096, China 2. Ecole Centrale Nantes—LS2N (Laboratoire des Sciences du Numérique de Nantes), 1 Rue de la Noë, CEDEX 3, 44000 Nantes, France
Abstract: Abstract: (optimal): This study introduces a hierarchical energy optimization strategy for a hybrid vehicle utilizing both fuel cell and battery systems, aimed at minimizing total energy consumption and enhancing the lifespan of the fuel cell and battery. An hierarchical supervisory energy management strategy is investigated, capable of detecting and compensating for faults in the fuel cell and battery, thereby reducing overall energy consumption and improving vehicle energy efficiency. The proposed strategy comprises three levels: i) At the highest level, a supervisory battery and fuel cell management system is implemented to ensure vehicle stability and maintain acceptable performance during fault conditions; ii) The second level employs an advanced energy management strategy based on FC Fuel Consumption Minimization Strategy to enhance bus energy efficiency and minimize total energy consumption; iii)The first level incorporates an improved optimized proportional-integral controller to achieve optimal tracking of vehicle subsystem set points. The performance of the proposed strategy is compared with other energy management strategies, including equivalent fuel consumption minimization strategy, finite state machine, and fuzzy logic rules control strategy. The validation of the proposed strategy is conducted using the dynamic BUSINOVA bus model within the professional TruckMaker/MATLAB software environment.

Title: Review of AEM electrolysis research from the perspective of developing a reliable model
Authors: Rafal Bernat; Jaroslaw Milewski; Olaf Dybimski; Aliaxandr Martsinchyk; Pavel Shuhayeu
Affiliation: Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering, Institute of Heat Engineering, 21/25 Nowowiejska Street, 00-665 Warsaw, Poland
Abstract: This comprehensive review provides an in-depth analysis of the advancements, challenges, and future directions in the field of alkaline exchange membrane (AEM) electrolysis, a key technology for sustainable hydrogen production. AEM electrolysis, merging the benefits of classical alkaline (ALK) and proton exchange membrane (PEM) systems, offers cost and efficiency advantages using non-precious metal catalysts and lower operating temperatures. The review encompasses breakthroughs in materials development, novel electrode architectures, performance enhancement strategies, and the global electrolyser market's growth, emphasizing its role in achieving Net Zero Emissions by 2050. It highlights the versatility of electrolysers in hydrogen production, chemical processes, energy storage, and grid balancing, pivotal in the global energy transition. Delving into AEM water electrolysis (AEM WE) specifically, the review discusses its operation principles, material and thermal-flow parameters, and experimental research techniques. It underscores the nascent stage of this technology and the need for intensive research, presenting findings on membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) characterization, catalyst performance, and electrochemical ammonia synthesis. The review also covers literature on anion exchange electrolysis technology, focusing on membranes, catalysts, and operational challenges, and concludes with future research directions in material development, hydroxide ion conductivity, and commercialization strategies. Additionally, the review synthesizes key findings from various studies on cell components, electrolyte types, materials, and experimental setups in AEM electrolysis. It includes analyses of water feeding methods, electrolyte compositions, catalyst layer specifications, asymmetric configurations, and direct hydrogen production. The review highlights the role of nickel and nickel-iron catalysts in AEM anodes and the impact of anion exchange ionomer content on electrode performance. It also covers experimental methodologies, including electrochemical techniques and membrane electrode characterization, providing insights into operational parameters and performance metrics of AEM water electrolysis. In summary, this review presents a holistic view of the current state and potential of AEM water electrolysis, emphasizing the need for systematic advancements and commercialization efforts to harness the full potential of this promising technology in various economic sectors.

Title: Investigating Fluid Dynamics, Transport Phenomena, and Electrochemical Reactions in Reversible Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (R-PEMFC)
Author: Cavaliere
Highlights: • Investigates reversible polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (R-PEMFC). • Uses simulations to improve performance, focusing on the membrane-electrode assembly. • Analyzes the effect of temperature, pressure, and humidity on fuel cell efficiency. • Curved channels improve mass transport, reactant distribution, and water management. • Optimal channel curvature and dimensions are critical for better performance.

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