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Sustainability of Fossil Fuels: Properties, Preparation, Transportation, Spaying, Combustion

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "L: Energy Sources".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2020) | Viewed by 18777

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Power Engineering National Research, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
Interests: energy; fuels; ignition; combustion chemistry; environmental performance; gas emissions; waste-derived fuels; coal–water slurry; waste to energy; thermal engineering; mathematical modeling; heat and mass transfer
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide readers with the results of fundamental and applied research in the field of energy production from the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, peat, oil), waste-derived fuels and biomass.

We are pleased to invite researchers to contribute to the creation of a Special Issue dedicated to various aspects of sustainable use of fossil fuels, biomass, and waste-derived fuels.

The main acclaimed research directions in the use of fossil fuels are their properties, preparation, transportation, spaying, and combustion.

In preparing this Special Issue, we will attempt to reveal different directions for solving environmental, energy, and economic problems in different regions of the world by increasing the efficiency of fossil fuel combustion. We therefore invite authors to focus their attention on the mandatory explanation of the scientific novelty of the results of fundamental and applied research with an extended review of the work of other authors.

Prof. Dr. Pavel A. Strizhak
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Combustion of solid, liquid, and composite fuels
  • Preparation of fuel composition
  • Transportation and spraying of fuels
  • Properties of fossil fuels, combustible wastes, and biomass
  • Ecological problems of thermal power industry
  • Technical and economic problems of thermal power industry
  • Optimal use of energy resources

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 340 KiB  
Editorial
Research into Energy Production from the Combustion of Waste-Derived Composite Fuels
by Anastasia Islamova, Svetlana Kropotova and Pavel Strizhak
Energies 2022, 15(15), 5660; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15155660 - 4 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1033
Abstract
In the original article [...] Full article

Research

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17 pages, 2305 KiB  
Article
Switching Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant to Composite Fuel for Recovering Industrial and Municipal Waste: Combustion Characteristics, Emissions, and Economic Effect
by Dmitrii Glushkov, Geniy Kuznetsov and Kristina Paushkina
Energies 2020, 13(1), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010259 - 4 Jan 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 7723
Abstract
Combustion characteristics were studied experimentally for single droplets of fuel slurries based on wet coal processing waste with municipal solid waste components (cardboard, plastic, rubber, and wood) and used turbine oil. We established the ignition delay time for three various groups of fuel [...] Read more.
Combustion characteristics were studied experimentally for single droplets of fuel slurries based on wet coal processing waste with municipal solid waste components (cardboard, plastic, rubber, and wood) and used turbine oil. We established the ignition delay time for three various groups of fuel compositions in motionless air at 600–1000 °C. The minimum values are 3 s, and the maximum ones are 25 s. The maximum temperatures in the droplet vicinity reach 1300 °C during fuel combustion for compositions with 10% of used oil. The combustion temperatures of fuel compositions without oil are 200–300 °C lower. The concentrations of anthropogenic emissions in flue gases do not exceed those from dry coal combustion. Adding used oils to composite fuels reduces the concentrations of dioxins and furans in flue gases when municipal solid waste in the fuel burns out due to high combustion temperatures. Based on the experimental research findings, we have elaborated a strategy of combined industrial and municipal waste recovery by burning it as part of composite fuels, as illustrated by three neighboring regions of the Russian Federation with different industrial structures and levels of social development. This strategy suggests switching three typical coal-fired thermal power plants (one in each of the regions) to composite liquid fuel. It will reduce the hazard of waste to the environment and decrease the consumption of high-quality coals for power generation. Implementing the developed strategy for 25 years will save 145 Mt of coal and recover 190–260 Mt of waste. The positive economic effect, considering the modernization of fuel handling systems at thermal power plants and the construction of a fuel preparation plant, will make up 5.7 to 6.9 billion dollars, or 65–78%, respectively, of the main costs of three thermal power plants operating on coal within the identical period. Full article
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18 pages, 5385 KiB  
Article
Ignition of Slurry Fuel Droplets with Different Heating Conditions
by Timur Valiullin, Ksenia Vershinina and Pavel Strizhak
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4553; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234553 - 29 Nov 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
This paper describes modern research methods of the ignition and combustion processes of slurry fuel droplets. The experiments were carried out using a muffle furnace to ensure the conditions of radiation heating, the hot surface to reproduce the conditions of conductive heating, the [...] Read more.
This paper describes modern research methods of the ignition and combustion processes of slurry fuel droplets. The experiments were carried out using a muffle furnace to ensure the conditions of radiation heating, the hot surface to reproduce the conditions of conductive heating, the high-temperature channel with convective heating, the chamber with the processes of soaring, i.e., a significant increase in the time of fuel residence in the combustion chamber. We identified the differences in combustion modes, threshold ignition temperatures, delay times and durations of combustion processes. We obtained the quantitative differences in the characteristics of the ignition and combustion processes for typical registration methods. It was found that for all heating schemes, the minimum ignition temperatures have comparable values. Minimum ignition delay times were recorded during convective heating. The maximum combustion temperatures were achieved with radiation heating. We determined the values of limiting heat fluxes, sufficient to initiate the combustion of slurries fuels during conductive, convective and radiative heating. Full article
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14 pages, 3173 KiB  
Article
Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature and Retention Time on Fuel Characteristics of Food Waste Feedstuff and Compost for Co-Firing in Coal Power Plants
by Ye-Eun Lee, Dong-Chul Shin, Yoonah Jeong, I-Tae Kim and Yeong-Seok Yoo
Energies 2019, 12(23), 4538; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12234538 - 28 Nov 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2621
Abstract
Food waste is an underutilized organic resource given its abundance and high potential energy. The purpose of this study was to confirm the suitability of pyrolyzed food waste as a co-firing fuel by adjusting the pyrolysis temperature (300–500 °C) and retention time (15–60 [...] Read more.
Food waste is an underutilized organic resource given its abundance and high potential energy. The purpose of this study was to confirm the suitability of pyrolyzed food waste as a co-firing fuel by adjusting the pyrolysis temperature (300–500 °C) and retention time (15–60 min). Both high moisture (compost) and low moisture (feedstuff) food waste were examined. Increasing the temperature and retention time yielded more volatile H and O as well as C sequestration, resulting in reduced H/C and O/C ratios. Notably, the van Krevelen diagram increased in similarity to that of coal. Upon pyrolyzing food waste compost, more than half of the chloride was volatilized, the highest carbon content of the compost and feedstuff were 61.35% and 54.12%, respectively, after pyrolysis at 400 °C for 60 min; however, the calorific value of the pyrolyzed feedstuff was reduced owing to the high salt concentration. The pyrolyzed compost and feedstuff had high Ca contents, which contributed to an increased ash fusion temperature. Therefore, food waste byproducts are advantageous as co-firing fuels in terms of energy regeneration. Nevertheless, further research is required regarding the removal of salt and alkali earth metal ion materials. Full article
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24 pages, 3191 KiB  
Article
Interaction of Liquid Droplets in Gas and Vapor Flows
by A. V. Demidovich, S. S. Kralinova, P. P. Tkachenko, N. E. Shlegel and R. S. Volkov
Energies 2019, 12(22), 4256; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224256 - 8 Nov 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2737
Abstract
We investigated the conditions, characteristics, and outcomes of liquid droplet interaction in the gas medium using video frame processing. The frequency of different droplet collision outcomes and their characteristics were determined. Four interaction regimes were identified: bounce, separation, coalescence, and disruption. Collision regime [...] Read more.
We investigated the conditions, characteristics, and outcomes of liquid droplet interaction in the gas medium using video frame processing. The frequency of different droplet collision outcomes and their characteristics were determined. Four interaction regimes were identified: bounce, separation, coalescence, and disruption. Collision regime maps were drawn up using the Weber, Reynolds, Ohnesorge, Laplace, and capillary numbers, as well as dimensionless linear and angular parameters of interaction. Significant differences were established between interaction maps under ideal conditions (two droplets colliding without a possible impact of the neighboring ones) and collision of droplets as aerosol elements. It was shown that the Weber number could not be the only criterion for changing the collision mode, and sizes and concentration of droplets in aerosols influence collision modes. It was established that collisions of droplets in a gaseous medium could lead to an increase in the liquid surface area by 1.5–5 times. Such a large-scale change in the surface area of the liquid significantly intensifies heat transfer and phase transformations in energy systems. Full article
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15 pages, 4949 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Particle Size of Sandy Sediments on Heat and Mass Transfer Characteristics during Methane Hydrate Dissociation by Thermal Stimulation
by Yi Wang, Lei Zhan, Jing-Chun Feng and Xiao-Sen Li
Energies 2019, 12(22), 4227; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224227 - 6 Nov 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
Natural gas hydrate could be regarded as an alternative energy source in the future. Therefore, the investigation of the gas production from hydrate reservoirs is attracting extensive attention. In this work, a novel set-up was built to investigate sand production and sediment deformation [...] Read more.
Natural gas hydrate could be regarded as an alternative energy source in the future. Therefore, the investigation of the gas production from hydrate reservoirs is attracting extensive attention. In this work, a novel set-up was built to investigate sand production and sediment deformation during hydrate dissociation by heat stimulation. The influence of the particle sizes on the hydrate dissociation and sediment deformation was first investigated experimentally. The experimental results indicated that the rate of hydrate decomposition by heat stimulation was in proportion to the particle size of the sediment. The heat transfer rate and the energy efficiency decreased with the decrease of the particle size of the sediment. This was because higher permeability might lead to a larger sweep area of the fluid flow, which was beneficial for the supply of heat for hydrate dissociation. The sand production was found during hydrate dissociation by heat stimulation. The particle migration was due to the hydrodynamics of the water injection. The sand sediment expanded under the drive force from water injection and hydrate dissociation. Additionally, the smaller permeability led to the larger pressure difference leading to the larger sediment deformation. Because the sediment became loose after hydrate dissociation, small particle migration due to the hydrodynamics of the water injection could happen during the experiments. However, the sand production in the sediment with the larger particle size was more difficult, because the larger particles were harder to move due to the hydrodynamics, and the larger particles were harder to move across the holes on the production well with a diameter of 1 mm. Therefore, the sediment deformation during hydrate dissociation by heat stimulation should not be ignored. Full article
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