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Special Issue "Drilling Technologies for the Next Generations"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "G: Geo-Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2021) | Viewed by 9887

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Univ Oklahoma, Mewbourne Sch Petr & Geol Engn, Norman, OK 73019, USA
Interests: petroleum engineering; well drilling technology; reservoir engineering; hydraulic fracturing; drilling engineering; gas hydrates; CO2 sequestration; petroleum exploration
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The increase in the world’s energy demands cannot be supported without drilling into the most complex areas. Weather we drill for oil, gas, geothermal energy, gas hydrates, or CCS, we need to make sure that our final product is safe and on target. This can only be achieved through continuous and innovative drilling technologies. Drilling has dramatically changed in the last 10 years through intensive and innovative technology, both in terms of hardware and software. Drilling technologies have become safer, faster, and more reliable than ever. Big data and automations are currently the industry’s big topic. Will this also affect the drilling technology? How about the next generation of drilling engineers? Will they be ready and able to drill faster, better, deeper, and safer?

I invite all of you to help me answer these questions through your contributions to this Special Issue. You may contribute papers related to the latest advancements in drilling technology, automation, innovative equipment, and methods. Drilling technology is a broad topic, and we would like to collect our current solutions for future generations.

Prof. Dr. Catalin Teodoriu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Drilling rigs
  • Drilling automation and mechanization
  • Advanced drilling solutions
  • Drilling to the limit
  • Intelligent drilling equipment

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Article
Real-Time Minimization of Mechanical Specific Energy with Multivariable Extremum Seeking
Energies 2021, 14(5), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14051298 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 977
Abstract
Drilling more efficiently and with less non-productive time (NPT) is one of the key enablers to reduce field development costs. In this work, we investigate the application of a data-driven optimization method called extremum seeking (ES) to achieve more efficient and safe drilling [...] Read more.
Drilling more efficiently and with less non-productive time (NPT) is one of the key enablers to reduce field development costs. In this work, we investigate the application of a data-driven optimization method called extremum seeking (ES) to achieve more efficient and safe drilling through automatic real-time minimization of the mechanical specific energy (MSE). The ES algorithm gathers information about the current downhole conditions by performing small tests with the applied weight on bit (WOB) and drill string rotational rate (RPM) while drilling and automatically implements optimization actions based on the test results. The ES method does not require an a priori model of the drilling process and can thus be applied even in instances when sufficiently accurate drilling models are not available. The proposed algorithm can handle various drilling constraints related to drilling dysfunctions and hardware limitations. The algorithm’s performance is demonstrated by simulations, where the algorithm successfully finds and maintains the optimal WOB and RPM while adhering to drilling constraints in various settings. The simulations show that the ES method is able to track changes in the optimal WOB and RPM corresponding to changes in the drilled formation. As demonstrated in the simulation scenarios, the overall improvements in rate of penetration (ROP) can be up to 20–170%, depending on the initial guess of the optimal WOB and RPM obtained from e.g., a drill-off test or a potentially inaccurate model. The presented algorithm is supplied with specific design choices and tuning considerations that facilitate its simple and efficient use in drilling applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drilling Technologies for the Next Generations)
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Article
Corrosion Repair of Pipelines Using Modern Composite Materials Systems: A Numerical Performance Evaluation
Energies 2021, 14(3), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14030615 - 26 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
Pipe corrosion is a frequent phenomenon, and if repairs are delayed it could lead to environmental damage. Drilling activities can expand only when sufficient surface transportation capacity for the produced fluids exists and thus good maintenance of the transportation system is important. Furthermore, [...] Read more.
Pipe corrosion is a frequent phenomenon, and if repairs are delayed it could lead to environmental damage. Drilling activities can expand only when sufficient surface transportation capacity for the produced fluids exists and thus good maintenance of the transportation system is important. Furthermore, the technology presented herein can be easily upgraded as a repair solution for surface casing section below the casing head, which have been repeatedly reported as being highly corroded for older wells. This paper presents the results of the research work carried out by the authors in order to evaluate the design methods of the modern composite material systems used to repair steel pipes carrying hydrocarbons upon which local metal loss defects (generated by corrosion and/or erosion processes) have been detected. The pipe repair technologies consisting of the application of composite material wraps (made of a polymeric matrix and reinforcing fabric) are perceived as being advantageous alternative solutions for substituting the conventional technologies, which require welding operations to be performed in the corroded pipe areas. The performance and the design methods of the composite repair systems have been investigated by evaluating the reinforcement effects (the restoration level of the damaged pipe mechanical strength) generated by the applied composite wraps as a function of their geometry and mechanical properties. To that purpose, numerical models based on finite elements (previously developed by the authors and certified by comparing them with the results of several experimental programs performed within our university) have been used. The calculation methods proposed in literature (among which a method previously proposed by the authors) to define the composite wrap dimensions (thickness and length) for a given pipe have been compared to the numerical results in order to select the most adequate solution for the design of the composite repair system. The influence in the design process of the defect orientation and of its width has also been investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drilling Technologies for the Next Generations)
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Article
Influence of Graphene Oxide on Rheological Parameters of Cement Slurries
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5441; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205441 - 19 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 701
Abstract
In recent years, graphene-based nanomaterials have been increasingly and widely used in numerous industrial sectors. In the drilling industry, graphene oxide in cement slurry has significantly improved the mechanical parameters of cement composites and is a future-proof solution. However, prior to placing it [...] Read more.
In recent years, graphene-based nanomaterials have been increasingly and widely used in numerous industrial sectors. In the drilling industry, graphene oxide in cement slurry has significantly improved the mechanical parameters of cement composites and is a future-proof solution. However, prior to placing it in a borehole ring space, cement slurry must feature appropriate fluidity. Graphene oxide has a significant influence on rheological parameters. Therefore, it is necessary to study graphene oxide’s influence on the rheological parameters of cement slurries. Thus, this paper presents rheological models and the results of studies on rheological parameters. A basic cement slurry and a slurry with a latex addition were used. The latex admixture was applied at concentrations of 0.1%, 0.03%, and 0.06%. In total, studies were carried out for six slurries with graphene oxide and two basic slurries. The obtained results of studies on the slurries with graphene oxide were compared with the control slurry. It was found that the smallest graphene oxide concentration increased slurry value, some rheological parameter values, plastic viscosity, and the flow limit. Surprisingly, a concentration up to 0.03% was an acceptable value, since the increase in plastic viscosity was not excessively high, which allowed the use of cement slurry to seal the hole. Once this value was exceeded, the slurry caused problems at its injection to the borehole. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drilling Technologies for the Next Generations)
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Article
Experimental Design, Instrumentation, and Testing of a Laboratory-Scale Test Rig for Torsional Vibrations—The Next Generation
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4750; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184750 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
Drilling technology and specially drilling equipment has dramatically changed in the last 10 years through intensive and innovative technologies, both in terms of hardware and software. While engineers are focusing on safer, faster, and more reliable than ever technologies, big data and automation [...] Read more.
Drilling technology and specially drilling equipment has dramatically changed in the last 10 years through intensive and innovative technologies, both in terms of hardware and software. While engineers are focusing on safer, faster, and more reliable than ever technologies, big data and automation are currently considered the way forward to achieve these goals. Especially when automation concepts are proposed, the prior testing and qualification under a laboratory-controlled environment are mandatory. Drilling simulators have been hugely successful in training industry personnel and academic professionals. A big reason for its success lies in the seamless integration of hardware and software to include an interactive user interface. Physical experimental simulators have the advantage of exposing the user with visual and auditive aids to better understand the real process. This paper provides an insight into the construction and results obtained using a dedicated laboratory setup, which is also configured to various levels of automation. The setup is capable of safely recreating drilling vibrations that occur in wells, including stick-slip vibrations, which are detrimental in nature. With advanced sensor capabilities, the impact of proper sampling rates on the diagnosis of stick-slip vibrations has been analyzed in the paper. The results show that these vibrations are not only dependent on drilling parameters, such as rotational speed (RPM), torque, and weight on bit, but also on stick-slip parameters, such as bit sticking time period and frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drilling Technologies for the Next Generations)
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Article
A Fast Method to Determine the Critical Depth of Cut for Various Rock Types
Energies 2020, 13(17), 4496; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13174496 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 835
Abstract
Knowing correct values of the rock mechanical properties is crucial for many engineering applications in subsurface. Rocks may show two failure modes during cutting: ductile and brittle. In the ductile mode, rock deforms plastically, and the debris is powdered ahead of the cutting [...] Read more.
Knowing correct values of the rock mechanical properties is crucial for many engineering applications in subsurface. Rocks may show two failure modes during cutting: ductile and brittle. In the ductile mode, rock deforms plastically, and the debris is powdered ahead of the cutting face. On the other hand, chips are the major cutting characteristics for the brittle failure during rock cutting. The critical depth of cut represents the transition point between these two models, so knowing this value helps better predict the failure mechanism of rock. In this paper, a new method is introduced based on measuring the roughness of the groove for determining the transition point of failure modes for every rock sample after the scratch test. The graph depicting the average change in the surface roughness (Rt) versus the scratched surface roughness (ΔR) can be used to identify the rock failure mode and determine the transition point for the cutting process. The value of this slope increases until the depth of cut reaches the transition point, and then the slope reaches a constant value. The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the critical depth of cut of different rock specimens employing the new surface roughness model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drilling Technologies for the Next Generations)
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Article
Influence of Rotation Speed and Air Pressure on the Down the Hole Drilling Velocity for Borehole Heat Exchanger Installation
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2716; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112716 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 918
Abstract
The relation between rotation speed, air pressure and the velocity of air-rotary drilling using the down the hole method is determined in an empirical manner. For the study, velocity measurements are obtained for combinations of the aforementioned parameters during fieldwork for the installation [...] Read more.
The relation between rotation speed, air pressure and the velocity of air-rotary drilling using the down the hole method is determined in an empirical manner. For the study, velocity measurements are obtained for combinations of the aforementioned parameters during fieldwork for the installation of borehole heat exchangers near Lublin, Poland. The tests consider three drill bit diameters—110, 127 and 140 mm; three rotational speeds—20, 40 and 60 1/min; and three air pressures—16, 20 and 24 bar. The borehole heat exchangers need 100 m deep wells. The lithology consists mainly of loess and clays to 24 m, sand and carbonate rocks to 36 m, and marls and limestone to 100 m. It is found that the highest drilling velocity is achieved when the greatest pressure is applied, while the lowest drilling velocity is connected to the lowest pressure. However, the relation between rotation speed and drilling velocity is more complex, as drilling velocity seems to be more affected by depth. Therefore, lithology can be a major factor. The results may find direct use in drilling, and provide a basis for further studies on the optimization of drilling technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drilling Technologies for the Next Generations)
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Article
Beyond Carbon Steel: Detecting Wellbore Shape and Cavities, and Cement Imperfections in Cased Wells
Energies 2019, 12(21), 4211; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12214211 - 05 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
The non-corrosive, electrically resistive fiberglass casing materials may improve the economics of oil and gas field projects. At moderate temperatures (<120 °C), fiberglass casing is superior to carbon steel casing in applications that involve wet CO2 injection and/or production, such as carbon [...] Read more.
The non-corrosive, electrically resistive fiberglass casing materials may improve the economics of oil and gas field projects. At moderate temperatures (<120 °C), fiberglass casing is superior to carbon steel casing in applications that involve wet CO2 injection and/or production, such as carbon capture and storage, and CO2-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. Without a perfect protective cement shell, carbon steel casing in contact with a concentrated formation brine corrodes and the fiberglass casing is superior again. Fiberglass casing enables electromagnetic logging for exploration and reservoir monitoring, but it requires the development of new logging methods. Here we present a technique for the detection of integrity of magnetic cement behind resistive fiberglass casing. We demonstrate that an optimized induction logging tool can detect small changes in the magnetic permeability of cement through a non-conductive casing in a vertical (or horizontal) well. We determine both the integrity and solidification state of the cement-filled annulus behind the casing. Changes in magnetic permeability influence mostly the real part of the vertical component of the magnetic field. The signal amplitude is more sensitive to a change in the magnetic properties of the cement, rather than the signal phase. Our simulations showed that optimum separation between the transmitter and receiver coils ranged from 0.25 to 0.6 m, and the most suitable magnetic field frequencies varied from 0.1 to 10 kHz. A high-frequency induction probe operating at 200 MHz can measure the degree of solidification of cement. The proposed method can detect borehole cracks filled with cement, incomplete lift of cement, casing eccentricity, and other borehole inhomogeneities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drilling Technologies for the Next Generations)
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Article
A Hydraulic Model for Multiphase Flow Based on the Drift Flux Model in Managed Pressure Drilling
Energies 2019, 12(20), 3930; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12203930 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1009
Abstract
Managed pressure drilling (MPD) is a drilling technique used to address the narrow density window under complex geological environments. It has widespread applications in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas, both onshore and offshore. In this study, to achieve effective control [...] Read more.
Managed pressure drilling (MPD) is a drilling technique used to address the narrow density window under complex geological environments. It has widespread applications in the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas, both onshore and offshore. In this study, to achieve effective control of the downhole pressure to ensure safety, a gas–liquid two-phase flow model based on the drift flux model is developed to describe the characteristics of transient multiphase flow in the wellbore. The advection upwind splitting method (AUSM) numerical scheme is used to assist with calculation and analysis, and the monotonic upwind scheme for conservation laws (MUSCLs) technique with second-order precision is adopted in combination with the Van Leer slope limiter to improve precision. Relevant data sourced from prior literature are used to validate the suggested model, the results of which reveal an excellent statistical consistency. Further, the influences of various parameters in a field application, including backpressure, density, and mass flow, are analyzed. Over the course of later-stage drilling, a combination of wellhead backpressure and displacement is recommended to exercise control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drilling Technologies for the Next Generations)
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Review

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Review
An Outlook of Drilling Technologies and Innovations: Present Status and Future Trends
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4499; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154499 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 819
Abstract
The present article analyzes the technological advancement and innovations related to drilling operations. It covers the review of currently proven and emerging technologies that could mitigate the drilling operational deficiencies and instabilities that could hinder operational performance activities and the economic part of [...] Read more.
The present article analyzes the technological advancement and innovations related to drilling operations. It covers the review of currently proven and emerging technologies that could mitigate the drilling operational deficiencies and instabilities that could hinder operational performance activities and the economic part of drilling development with great effort to minimize their environmental footprint. Drilling system design and operations are among the major aspects and cost-effective endeavors of the oil and gas industries, which are therefore technology dependent. They are also considered to be among the most expensive operations in the world, as they require huge expenses daily. Drilling success, depending on prevalent conditions, is a function of several general factors. These include the selection of the best technologies and tools, procedural optimization, concrete problem-solving, accurate prediction, and rapid decision-making. Consequently, any sorts of tools or advanced technologies that can improve the time-efficient operational and economic performance of drilling activities are essential and demanded. The paper provides a review of available technologies and developmental innovations based on both company-based and academic research-enabled drilling solutions over the past 5 years in the field of drilling systems and technological design. The paper further highlighted potential technologies that could be tapped in from other industries and could possibly be adopted by pushing the conventional boundaries of drilling operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drilling Technologies for the Next Generations)
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Review
Investigation of Old Exploration Boreholes in the Lublin Basin with Regard to Potential Rotary-Percussion Drilling of Shale Gas Wells
Energies 2021, 14(10), 2734; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14102734 - 11 May 2021
Viewed by 562
Abstract
The rotary-percussion drilling method is a prospective way to decrease drilling costs. It is obvious, based on literature analyses and finished geothermal drilling, that the Lublin Basin can be perceived as the one where rotary-percussion drilling can be used to drill an overburden [...] Read more.
The rotary-percussion drilling method is a prospective way to decrease drilling costs. It is obvious, based on literature analyses and finished geothermal drilling, that the Lublin Basin can be perceived as the one where rotary-percussion drilling can be used to drill an overburden of shale rocks. The paper explained the geology of the Lublin Basin, its’ geological structures, and the possibility of the use of drilling with a down-the-hole hammer, which could significantly decrease the cost of the whole shale gas drilling investment. Data collected from the wells drilled in the Lublin Basin were compared and analyzed to determine the viability of rotary-percussion drilling. Provided analyses showed that using the rotary-percussion drilling method in the Lublin Basin had a greater possibility of application than in other Polish shale basins (Baltic and Podlasie). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drilling Technologies for the Next Generations)
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