Modern Techniques in Radar Systems

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Microwave and Wireless Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 15137

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, University of Pardubice, 530 03 Pardubice, Czech Republic
Interests: ionospheric radars; FMCW/FMICW radars; signal processing; navigation systems; image processing and GNSS

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Guest Editor
Department Biomedical Technology, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic
Interests: hyperthermia; radar imaging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

At present, radar systems are important in many applications. Radars are applied in air traffic control, rescue systems, high seas navigation, traffic control, medicine applications, weather monitoring systems, ionospheric measurements, the mapping of battle areas, unknown spaces mapping (like caves, the planet surface, or the inhomogeneities in materials), robot navigation systems, and other applications. Radar systems are being improved; modern, more powerful computers and new electronic and material technologies are used; and, thanks to this, the systems are producing better and better results. The best results from these systems are also obtained thanks to new algorithms for signal processing and data representation.

This Special Issue focuses on modern techniques in radar systems in all areas of deployment. The invited topics are improvements in the design of radar systems, radar signals preprocessing, automatic target separation, automatic description of targets, or the description of areas (the definition of objects as simple blocks).

Dr. Lubos Rejfek
Dr. Ondrej Fišer
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • FMCW radars
  • MIMO radars
  • UWB radars
  • Pulse radars
  • Doppler radars
  • Lidars
  • Passive radars

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 1415 KiB  
Article
Joint Vital Signs and Position Estimation of Multiple Persons Using SIMO Radar
by Ibrahim Kakouche, Hamza Abadlia, Mohammed Nabil El Korso, Ammar Mesloub, Abdelmadjid Maali and Mohamed Salah Azzaz
Electronics 2021, 10(22), 2805; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10222805 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
Respiration rate monitoring using ultra-wideband (UWB) radar is preferred because it provides contactless measurement without restricting the person’s privacy. This study considers a novel non-contact-based solution using a single-input multiple-output (SIMO) UWB impulse radar. In the proposed system, the collected radar data are [...] Read more.
Respiration rate monitoring using ultra-wideband (UWB) radar is preferred because it provides contactless measurement without restricting the person’s privacy. This study considers a novel non-contact-based solution using a single-input multiple-output (SIMO) UWB impulse radar. In the proposed system, the collected radar data are converted to several narrow-band signals using the generalized Goertzel algorithm (GGA), which are used as the input of the designed phased arrays for position estimation. In this context, we introduce the incoherent signal subspace methods (ISSM) for the direction of arrivals (DOAs) and distance evaluation. Meanwhile, a beam focusing approach is used to determine each individual and estimate their breathing rate automatically based on a linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) beamformer. The experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm can achieve high estimation accuracy in a variety of test environments, with an error of 2%, 5%, and 2% for DOA, distance, and respiration rate, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Techniques in Radar Systems)
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16 pages, 4064 KiB  
Article
2.45 GHz Band Quadrature Microwave Frequency Discriminators with Integrated Correlators Based on Power Dividers and Rat-Race Hybrids
by Adam Rutkowski and Hubert Stadnik
Electronics 2021, 10(22), 2763; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10222763 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1946
Abstract
Instantaneous frequency measurement devices are useful for conducting extremely fast measurements of the current frequency value of microwave signals, even if their duration is extremely short. This paper presents the principle of determination of temporary values of the microwave signal phase and frequency [...] Read more.
Instantaneous frequency measurement devices are useful for conducting extremely fast measurements of the current frequency value of microwave signals, even if their duration is extremely short. This paper presents the principle of determination of temporary values of the microwave signal phase and frequency using interferometer techniques, based on passive microwave components. Additionally, the structures and results of measurements of two novel versions of integrated microwave correlators for microwave frequency discriminators, made on a single printed circuit board, are shown. Three Wilkinson-type, single-stage power dividers, and two rat-race hybrids create the developed correlators. The developed devices were designed to work over a wide frequency range, i.e., of 1.6–3.1 GHz, and can be used to monitor Wi-Fi devices as well as pulse and CW radar systems operating in the S band. They can also be applied in passive radars and active Doppler radars. The view of the printed circuits boards and results of measurements are presented. Recommendations for improving the accuracy of measurement are proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Techniques in Radar Systems)
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24 pages, 6476 KiB  
Article
Multi-Target Tracking Algorithm Based on 2-D Velocity Measurements Using Dual-Frequency Interferometric Radar
by Saima Ishtiaq, Xiangrong Wang and Shahid Hassan
Electronics 2021, 10(16), 1969; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10161969 - 16 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2763
Abstract
Multi-target tracking (MTT) generally requires either a network of Doppler radar receivers distributed at different locations or a phased array radar. The targets moving with small/no radial velocity or angular velocity only cannot be detected and localized completely by deploying Doppler radar without [...] Read more.
Multi-target tracking (MTT) generally requires either a network of Doppler radar receivers distributed at different locations or a phased array radar. The targets moving with small/no radial velocity or angular velocity only cannot be detected and localized completely by deploying Doppler radar without antenna arrays or multiple receivers. To resolve this issue, we present a new MTT algorithm based on 2-D velocity measurements, namely, radial and angular velocities, using dual-frequency interferometric radar. The contributions of the proposed research are twofold: First, we introduce the mathematical model and implementation of the proposed algorithm by explicitly establishing the relationship between 2-D velocity measurements and kinematic state of the target in terms of Cartesian coordinates. Based on 2-D velocity measurement function, the proposed MTT algorithm comprises the following steps: (i) data association using global nearest neighbor (GNN) method (ii) target state estimation using interacting multiple model (IMM) estimator combined with square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF) (iii) track management using rule-based M/N logic. Second, performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated in terms of tracking accuracy, computational complexity and IMM mean model probabilities. Simulation results for different scenarios with multiple targets moving in different tracks have been presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Techniques in Radar Systems)
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16 pages, 5921 KiB  
Article
Counter-Passive Coherent Locator (C-PCL)—A Method of Remote Detection of Passive Radars for Electronic Warfare Systems
by Michał Knioła, Tomasz Rogala and Zenon Szczepaniak
Electronics 2021, 10(14), 1625; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10141625 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4382
Abstract
Passive Coherent Location methods and techniques have an established position in the modern state-of-the-art radar. Inexpensive, easy to deploy and undetectable for other sensors, passive radars are growing in popularity. Due to that, a need arises to develop proper methods of any possible [...] Read more.
Passive Coherent Location methods and techniques have an established position in the modern state-of-the-art radar. Inexpensive, easy to deploy and undetectable for other sensors, passive radars are growing in popularity. Due to that, a need arises to develop proper methods of any possible kind of countermeasure. In this work, a method of detection and localization of hidden PCL systems is proposed. Authors exploit certain physical features of an RF receiver in order to detect such a passive systems. Results of selected hardware measurements are presented as a proof of concept. Summarized findings are followed by an extensive discussion of conditions related with the method implementation in a real world scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Techniques in Radar Systems)
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10 pages, 2251 KiB  
Article
Distributed Multistatic Sky-Wave Over-The-Horizon Radar Based on the Doppler Frequency for Marine Target Positioning
by Fangyu Ren, Huotao Gao and Lijuan Yang
Electronics 2021, 10(12), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10121472 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
Maritime safety issues have aroused great attention, and it has become a difficult problem to use the sky-wave over-the-horizon radar system to locate foreign targets or perform emergency rescue quickly and timely. In this paper, a distributed multi-point sky-wave over-the-horizon radar system is [...] Read more.
Maritime safety issues have aroused great attention, and it has become a difficult problem to use the sky-wave over-the-horizon radar system to locate foreign targets or perform emergency rescue quickly and timely. In this paper, a distributed multi-point sky-wave over-the-horizon radar system is used to locate marine targets. A positioning algorithm based on the Doppler frequency is proposed, namely, the two-step weighted least squares (2WLS) method. This algorithm first converts the WGS-48 geodetic coordinates of the transceiver station to spatial rectangular coordinates; then, introduces intermediate variables to convert the nonlinear optimization problem into a linear problem. In the 2WLS method, four mobile transmitters and four mobile receivers are set up, and the Doppler frequency is calculated by transmitting and receiving signals at regular intervals; it is proven that the 2WLS algorithm has always maintained a better positioning accuracy than the WLS algorithm as the error continues to increase with a certain ionospheric height measurement error and the Doppler frequency measurement error. This paper provides an effective method for the sky-wave over-the-horizon radar to locate maritime targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modern Techniques in Radar Systems)
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