5G and Low Power Wide Area Networks for the IoT

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 14634

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Signal Theory, Telematics and Communications, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Interests: LPWAN networks and the Internet of Things; 5G mobile networks using SDN/NFV paradigms; 4G broadband wireless networks; wireless local area networks; multimedia communications and quality of experience
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Guest Editor
Network Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: optimization; placement; SDN/NFV; edge computing; resource orchestration; IA/ML; DL; DRL; automation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda de la Universidad, 30, E-28911 Leganes, Madrid, Spain
Interests: NFV; UAV; drones; multimedia networking; network security
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Communications Engineering Department, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48013 Bilbao, Spain
Interests: 5G; SDN/NFV; in-network computing; mobility; cyber security
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Current forecasts predict that the Internet of Things will increase from 20 to 50 billion devices between 2020 and 2030. IoT services can be categorized into massive, low-latency or ultra‑reliable communications. Within massive IoT, unlicensed low-power wide area networks are gaining momentum due to their low cost, low power, and long-range characteristics, which make them suitable. LPWAN technologies include LoRaWAN, SigFox, NB-IoT, etcetera. For low-latency and ultra-reliable applications, 5G appears as the most prominent technology.

Within this scope, this Special Issue invites original contributions on topics related to 5G and LPWAN technologies applied to the Internet of Things. The topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • 5G and LPWAN technologies and architectures;
  • 5G and LPWAN use cases: Industry 4.0, Smart Cities, e-Health, agriculture, etcetera;
  • 5G and LPWAN real deployments;
  • Integration of different wireless technologies for IoT;
  • LoRaWAN applications and technology optimizations;
  • SigFox applications and technology optimizations;
  • 5G technologies for the Internet of Things such as 5G NR-Lite, NB-IoT, etcetera.

Prof. Dr. Jorge Navarro Ortiz
Prof. Dr. Cristina Cervello
Prof. Dr. Iván Vidal
Prof. Dr. Jasone Astorga
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • LPWAN
  • IoT
  • LoRaWAN
  • SigFox
  • 5G
  • 5G NR-Lite
  • NB-IoT

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 16814 KiB  
Article
A LoRaWAN Network Architecture with MQTT2MULTICAST
by Jorge Navarro-Ortiz, Natalia Chinchilla-Romero, Felix Delgado-Ferro and Juan Jose Ramos-Munoz
Electronics 2022, 11(6), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11060872 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2967
Abstract
In this work, an architecture for IoT networks oriented towards environmental sustainability is presented. Due to the suitability of its characteristics in terms of coverage, power and support of a large number of devices, an enhanced LoRaWAN network has been chosen as the [...] Read more.
In this work, an architecture for IoT networks oriented towards environmental sustainability is presented. Due to the suitability of its characteristics in terms of coverage, power and support of a large number of devices, an enhanced LoRaWAN network has been chosen as the basis for this proposal. The architecture is completed with the virtualization of the different LoRaWAN network entities and the usage of a software-defined network for their interconnection. The publication and subscription to environmental data is carried out by using the MQTT protocol. MQTT has been optimized thanks to the use of the SDN network and the use of edge computing resources, which allows multicasting of published data. Thanks to our developed MQTT2MULTICAST protocol, latency is improved by approx. 90% and the traffic load within the SDN network is reduced by 55%. An scalability analysis shows that this solution is able to support tens of thousands of LoRaWAN gateways. The proposed architecture has been implemented using commercial equipment as a proof of concept. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G and Low Power Wide Area Networks for the IoT)
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20 pages, 4138 KiB  
Article
A LoRaWAN Architecture for Communications in Areas without Coverage: Design and Pilot Trials
by Felix Delgado-Ferro, Jorge Navarro-Ortiz, Natalia Chinchilla-Romero and Juan Jose Ramos-Munoz
Electronics 2022, 11(5), 804; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11050804 - 4 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3858
Abstract
This article proposes a system based on a long-distance communications system with low economic and energy costs that allows connectivity to be carried out independently from the existing cellular coverage in the area. In addition, it describes the design, development, implementation and analysis [...] Read more.
This article proposes a system based on a long-distance communications system with low economic and energy costs that allows connectivity to be carried out independently from the existing cellular coverage in the area. In addition, it describes the design, development, implementation and analysis of an Internet of Things (IoT) architecture based on Long-Range Wide-Area Network (LoRaWAN). Moreover, the system has been deployed as a prototype, and the behavior and scope of the system have been analyzed in various real environments: urban, rural and natural. The results obtained from the analysis show that the system is suitable for working in areas without coverage such as mountains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G and Low Power Wide Area Networks for the IoT)
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16 pages, 869 KiB  
Article
Impact of Inter-Gateway Distance on LoRaWAN Performance
by Bruno Citoni, Shuja Ansari, Qammer Hussain Abbasi, Muhammad Ali Imran and Sajjad Hussain
Electronics 2021, 10(18), 2197; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10182197 - 8 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2466
Abstract
The large-scale behaviour of LoRaWAN networks has been studied through mathematical analysis and discrete-time simulations to understand their limitations. However, current literature is not always coherent in its assumptions and network setups. This paper proposes a comprehensive analysis of the known causes of [...] Read more.
The large-scale behaviour of LoRaWAN networks has been studied through mathematical analysis and discrete-time simulations to understand their limitations. However, current literature is not always coherent in its assumptions and network setups. This paper proposes a comprehensive analysis of the known causes of packet loss in an uplink-only LoRaWAN network: duty cycle limitations, packet collision, insufficient coverage, and saturation of a receiver’s demodulation paths. Their impact on the overall Quality of Service (QoS) for a two-gateway network is also studied. The analysis is carried out with the discrete-event network simulator NS-3 and is set up to best fit the real behaviour of devices. This approach shows that increasing gateway density is only effective as the gateways are placed at a distance. Moreover, the trade-off between different outage conditions due to the uneven distribution of spreading factors is not always beneficial, diminishing returns as networks grow denser and wider. In particular, networks operating similarly to the one analysed in this paper should specifically avoid SF11 and 12, which decrease the average overall PDR by about 7% at 10% nodes increment across all configurations. The results of this work intend to homogenise behavioural assumptions and setups of future research investigating the capability of LoRaWAN networks and provide insight on the weight of each outage condition in a varying two-gateway network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G and Low Power Wide Area Networks for the IoT)
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33 pages, 594 KiB  
Article
Machine Learning and LPWAN Based Internet of Things Applications in Healthcare Sector during COVID-19 Pandemic
by Zeeshan Ali Khan, Ubaid Abbasi and Sung Won Kim
Electronics 2021, 10(14), 1615; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics10141615 - 6 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3075
Abstract
Low power wide area networks (LPWAN) are comprised of small devices having restricted processing resources and limited energy budget. These devices are connected with each other using communication protocols. Considering their available resources, these devices can be used in a number of different [...] Read more.
Low power wide area networks (LPWAN) are comprised of small devices having restricted processing resources and limited energy budget. These devices are connected with each other using communication protocols. Considering their available resources, these devices can be used in a number of different Internet of Things (IoT) applications. Another interesting paradigm is machine learning, which can also be integrated with LPWAN technology to embed intelligence into these IoT applications. These machine learning-based applications combine intelligence with LPWAN and prove to be a useful tool. One such IoT application is in the medical field, where they can be used to provide multiple services. In the scenario of the COVID-19 pandemic, the importance of LPWAN-based medical services has gained particular attention. This article describes various COVID-19-related healthcare services, using the the applications of machine learning and LPWAN in improving the medical domain during the current COVID-19 pandemic. We validate our idea with the help of a case study that describes a way to reduce the spread of any pandemic using LPWAN technology and machine learning. The case study compares k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) and trust-based algorithms for mitigating the flow of virus spread. The simulation results show the effectiveness of KNN for curtailing the COVID-19 spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G and Low Power Wide Area Networks for the IoT)
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