Special Issue "Chronic Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases"

A special issue of Diseases (ISSN 2079-9721). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Disease".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Helieh S. Oz

University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: inflammatory and infectious diseases; nutrients; antioxidants; reactive oxygen radical; gastrointestinal inflammation; inflammatory bowel disease; microbial; parasitic and fungal infectious diseases; hepatic; pancreatic complication; models of infections and inflammation; nutraceutical and therapeutic discoveries
Co-Guest Editor
Dr. Veeranoot Nissapatorn

School of Allied Health Sciences, Walailak University, Thailand
Website | E-Mail
Interests: infectious parasitic diseases; epidemiology; clinical relevant; diagnostic challenges

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Millions of patients suffer from some form of chronic inflammatory diseases, with no available cure yet. Inflammation is a defensive body response to various injuries initiated by pathogens, chemicals, and cell damage. While inflammation is required in the body healing process, a persistent and excessive immune response is a significant risk factor for developing chronic inflammatory diseases and various related complications. Gastrointestinal infections alter the gut microbiome and increase the gut’s permeability to toxins. Infections with parasitic, microbial, fungal, and viral agents stimulate the immune response and inflammation. Invasions by pathogenic diseases are linked to the initiation of chronic inflammatory responses and accompanying complications, such as hepatic, pancreatic, cardiovascular, colic, gastrointestinal, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Investigators are invited to submit related original basic, clinical, and translational studies, papers on novel therapeutics and their mechanisms of action, as well as review papers through the Manuscript Tracking System at:

https://susy.mdpi.com/user/manuscripts/upload?journal=diseases

Dr. Helieh S. Oz
Guest Editor


Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diseases is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chronic inflammation
  • infectious disease
  • parasitic infection
  • microbial infection
  • fungal infections
  • gastrointestinal
  • cardiovascular
  • digestive disease

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Dirt, Saliva and Leprosy: Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Infectious Effects
Received: 4 March 2019 / Revised: 15 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Ancient Egyptians smeared a mixture of dark soil on their eyelids and believed it protected eyes from unknown forces (illness). Recent studies have proven that the dark soil across the Nile River is rich in natural compounds including lead sulfide, which in low [...] Read more.
Ancient Egyptians smeared a mixture of dark soil on their eyelids and believed it protected eyes from unknown forces (illness). Recent studies have proven that the dark soil across the Nile River is rich in natural compounds including lead sulfide, which in low levels, promotes the production of nitric oxide (240-fold) by keratinocytes, with strong immune stimulatory and antimicrobial properties. Current investigations reveal anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious activities—including cytokines and chemokines—in saliva, as well as its friendly microbiota, which lines the surface of the oral cavity, its protection against inflammatory and infectious organisms in the stoma and other organs, such as the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In fact, saliva may soon become a safe and practical surrogate biomarker for genomic/proteomic evaluations and to replace painful blood drawing and its side effects. Another example is leprosy, or Hansen’s disease, a chronic inflammatory syndrome and neglected tropical disease, which affects the skin, and peripheral and trigeminal neurons causing a lack of sensation to heat and cold and loss of extremities. Leprosy has horrified humans for over 2000 years, as lepers were considered unclean sinners and were subsequently drawn out of towns. This communication scrutinizes the past and the present state of saliva and leprosy to encounter possible mystery and/or wisdom in ancient healing as the mixture of “sputum and dirt” as reported in the biblical time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Inhibitory Effect of Ionizing Radiation on Echinococcus granulosus Hydatid Cyst
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2019 / Accepted: 17 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
Background: Heavy ion radiation has more advantages than traditional radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer, mainly because of its superior biological effects. However, there is currently no reliable evidence that heavy ion radiation can induce cell death in hydatid cysts at the [...] Read more.
Background: Heavy ion radiation has more advantages than traditional radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer, mainly because of its superior biological effects. However, there is currently no reliable evidence that heavy ion radiation can induce cell death in hydatid cysts at the cellular and molecular level. In addition, we believe heavy ion therapy could be a potential alternative approach for the treatment of hydatid cysts. Methodology/Principal Finding: The hydatid cysts and protoscolices were obtained from an experimentally infected KunMing mice. LD50 was used to evaluate the death of the protoscolex. The cellular and ultrastructure of the parasites were observed under light and electron microscopes, the damage and copy numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were decided by QPCR. The apoptosis was evaluated by the expression and activity of caspase3. Dose-dependent ionizing radiation induced damage to the initial mtDNA. Echinococcosis cyst after ionizing radiation showed sparse cytoplasm, disorganized and clumped organelles, huge vacuoles, and villus deletions. The kinetic of DNA repair activity after X-ray irradiation was faster than those after carbon-ion irradiation. High doses of carbon ion radiation caused irreversible attenuation of mitochondrial DNA. Cysts showed obvious reduction in size after radiation. Carbon ion radiation was more effective than X-ray radiation in inhibiting hydatid cysts. Conclusions: These studies provide evidence that heavy-ion radiation can cause the extinction of hydatid cysts in vitro. The carbon-ion radiation is more advantageous than X-ray radiation in suppress hydatid cyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Plasma Levels of Cytokines (IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α) in Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis and Drug Responsive Tuberculosis Patients in Ghana
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 23 December 2018
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Abstract
The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR–TB) and more recently, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB has intensified the need for studies aimed at identifying factors associated with TB drug resistance. This study determined the differences in plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory [...] Read more.
The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR–TB) and more recently, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB has intensified the need for studies aimed at identifying factors associated with TB drug resistance. This study determined the differences in plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines in MDR-TB and drug-susceptible (DS) TB patients, in addition to some socio-economic factors. Plasma levels of IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF-α were measured in 83 participants (comprising 49 MDR-TB and 34 DS-TB patients) using sandwich ELISA. Levels of the three cytokines were elevated in MDR-TB patients compared to DS-TB patients. The mean level of IL-10 (7.8 ± 3.61 ρg/mL) measured in MDR-TB cases was relatively higher than those of TNF-α and IFN-γ, and statistically significant (p = 0.0022) when compared to the level of IL-10 (4.8 ± 4.94 ρg/mL) in the DS-TB cases. There were statistically significant associations between MDR-TB and factors such as education level (X2 = 9.895, p = 0.043), employment status (X2 = 19.404, p = 0.001) and alcoholism (X2 = 3.971, p = 0.046). This study adds to the knowledge that IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 play a role in the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Alcohol intake can be considered as an important MDR-TB risk factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical Characteristics of Nursing- and Healthcare-Associated Tuberculosis
Diseases 2018, 6(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/diseases6040101
Received: 11 October 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 7 November 2018 / Published: 11 November 2018
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Abstract
Tuberculosis remains a serious health problem worldwide. Patients with tuberculosis who also require nursing care due to aging and underlying diseases are considered to have a high mortality rate; however, there are few studies describing detailed examinations of such disease conditions. Objective: The [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis remains a serious health problem worldwide. Patients with tuberculosis who also require nursing care due to aging and underlying diseases are considered to have a high mortality rate; however, there are few studies describing detailed examinations of such disease conditions. Objective: The present study was conducted to investigate differences in clinical features of elderly tuberculosis patients according to the levels of nursing and healthcare required. Design: The study participants included 146 elderly (≥65 years) patients diagnosed with active tuberculosis among patients hospitalized with tuberculosis at a single center. The patients were classified into two groups: a nursing- and healthcare-associated tuberculosis group (n = 71) and a community-acquired tuberculosis group (n = 75). Results: The nursing- and healthcare-associated tuberculosis patients were older and had a higher frequency of comorbidities compared with the community-acquired tuberculosis group. Patients in the nursing- and healthcare-associated tuberculosis group had markedly lower levels of serum albumin and hemoglobin, and higher levels of C-reactive protein. The rate of in-hospital death was significantly higher in the nursing- and healthcare-associated tuberculosis group. This was attributed to malnutrition and comorbid conditions rather than the severity of tuberculosis. Conclusion: The prognosis was poor in elderly tuberculosis patients receiving nursing and healthcare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases)

Review

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Open AccessReview
The MAPK Signaling Pathways as a Novel Way in Regulation and Treatment of Parasitic Diseases
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
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Abstract
Few major advances in fighting parasitic diseases have been made in China since the development of new methods for prevention, control, and elimination. However, the proportion of immunocompromised individuals has increased due to the growth of chronic diseases, population aging, and more frequent [...] Read more.
Few major advances in fighting parasitic diseases have been made in China since the development of new methods for prevention, control, and elimination. However, the proportion of immunocompromised individuals has increased due to the growth of chronic diseases, population aging, and more frequent cases of patients with AIDS and cancer. All these problems can promote development of parasitic infections, which is commonly associated with manipulation of host signaling pathways and the innate immune system. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways are evolutionarily conserved in metazoan organisms, which play critical roles in the cell cycle, gene expression, growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and parasite–host interactions. Recent discoveries of the MAPK components involved in activation, regulation, and signal transduction appeared to be promising for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of parasitic diseases in the future. This review summarizes the involvement and critical role of the MAPK family in parasitic disease development and maintenance in the host. Moreover, it highlights recent studies concerning the mechanisms and novel drug development for inhibition and regulation of MAPK pathways in order to prevent parasitic disease. In addition, we discuss some antigenic proteins as prospective inhibitory molecules or vaccines for the regulation and control of MAPK signaling involved in parasite physiological activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases)
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Other

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Open AccessCase Report
Central Nervous System Vasculitis for Cryptococcosis in an Immunocompetent Patient
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
Cryptococcal meningitis is a life-threatening condition caused by a fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, that can infect both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent hosts. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in severely immunodeficient patients. However, in an immunocompetent patient it represents a [...] Read more.
Cryptococcal meningitis is a life-threatening condition caused by a fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, that can infect both immunosuppressed and immunocompetent hosts. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in severely immunodeficient patients. However, in an immunocompetent patient it represents a diagnostic challenge, mainly because it is extremely rare, but also because of its nonspecific clinical manifestation. Neurovascular involvement in cryptococcal meningitis is rare and not well known and only few reports have described this association. We describe a cryptococcal meningitis in an immunocompetent patient associated with central nervous system vasculitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Inflammatory and Infectious Diseases)
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