Special Issue "Infectious Disease Epidemiology"

A special issue of Diseases (ISSN 2079-9721). This special issue belongs to the section "Infectious Disease".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Amal K. Mitra

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Jackson State University, 350 West Woodrow Wilson Dr., Suit 216, Jackson, MS 39213, USA
E-Mail
Interests: global health; neglected tropical diseases; lead poisoning; arsenic poisoning; iron; vitamin A; nutritional status; antioxidants; breast feeding; breast cancer; smoking; complementary and alternative medicine; metabolic syndrome; enteric pathogens; hepatitis C; hepatitis G

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many developing countries are facing an enormous burden of infectious diseases, including diarrhea, malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Although vaccines have conquered most of the infectious diseases, newer and emerging infectious diseases, such as Ebola fever, SERS coronavirus disease, MARS, Nipah virus, Hantavirus, Dengue fever, Chikungunya, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, West Nile virus infection, etc., are still causing public health threats worldwide. Climate change and global warming are increasing the likelihood and spread of many vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, and trypanosomiasis. Over time, many infectious organisms have adapted to the drugs designed to kill them, making the agents resistant to the commonly used antimicrobials. Improper medication or self-medication is often a factor causing this drug resistance. There is a growing need to identify population at risk, social and environmental factors, and economic burden to proritize resources. Mathematical modeling and the application of GIS are also important tools in predicting infectious diseases, identification of at-risk population, and the evaluation of interventions. This Special Issue on “Infectious Disease Epidemiology” will cover original articles and review articles related to global burden of infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, emerging diseases, social aspects and economic burden of diseases, laboratory identification, clinical trials, community interventions, GIS application, and mathematical models.The Editorial Officeis also considering publication of a book and a free copy of the book to the contributing authors once this special issue of the journal is published.

Prof. Dr. Amal K. Mitra
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diseases is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Infectious diseases
  • Global burden
  • Disability-adjusted life years (DALY)
  • Risk factors
  • Community interventions
  • Clinical trials
  • Laboratory studies
  • Drug resistance
  • GIS applications
  • Cost-effective analysis
  • Vaccine
  • Mathematical models
  • Social epidemiology

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication
Epidemiological Trends and Resistance Associated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Bacteremia: A 10-Year Retrospective Cohort Study in a Tertiary-Care Hospital in Hungary
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 31 May 2019
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Abstract
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has been recognized as an emerging nosocomial pathogen in invasive infections of immunocompromised, severely debilitated patients with significant underlying illnesses. The first-choice drug in these infections is sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX/TMP), and resistance to this antimicrobial is a daunting challenge for clinicians. The [...] Read more.
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has been recognized as an emerging nosocomial pathogen in invasive infections of immunocompromised, severely debilitated patients with significant underlying illnesses. The first-choice drug in these infections is sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX/TMP), and resistance to this antimicrobial is a daunting challenge for clinicians. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of S. maltophilia bacteremia and SMX/TMP-resistance levels at a tertiary-care university hospital. A total of 175 episodes of S. maltophilia bacteremia were identified (2008–2012: n = 82, 2013–2017: n = 93; p = 0.061), 52% of affected patients were 60 years of age, and had recent surgery, severe injuries or underlying conditions (malignant hematologic diseases and solid tumors) in their history. Sixteen percent of isolates were resistant to SMX/TMP (2008–2012: n = 13.8%, 2013–2017: n = 17.2%; p = 0.076), and out of the resistant strains, 32.7% were also resistant to levofloxacin and colistin. Our findings on the SMX/TMP-resistance were similar to global literature data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle
Role of Evolutionary Selection Acting on Vaccine Antigens in the Re-Emergence of Bordetella Pertussis
Received: 25 January 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 15 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
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Abstract
Pertussis (“whooping cough”) is a re-emerging disease with increasing incidence among fully vaccinated individuals. We explored the genetic diversity of five Bordetella pertussis proteins used to generate the subunit vaccine across ancestral and newly emergent strains using immunoinformatics and evolutionary selection measurements. The [...] Read more.
Pertussis (“whooping cough”) is a re-emerging disease with increasing incidence among fully vaccinated individuals. We explored the genetic diversity of five Bordetella pertussis proteins used to generate the subunit vaccine across ancestral and newly emergent strains using immunoinformatics and evolutionary selection measurements. The five subunits of pertussis toxin (Ptx1–Ptx5) were highly conserved with regard to sequence, predicted structure, predicted antigenicity, and were under purifying selection. In contrast, the adhesin proteins pertactin (Prn) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) were under statistically significant (p < 0.01) diversifying selection. Most heavily diversified sites of each protein fell within antigenic epitopes, and the functional adhesin motifs were conserved. Protein secondary structure was conserved despite sequence diversity for FHA but was changeable in Prn. These findings suggest that subunit vaccine-derived immunity does not impact Ptx1–Ptx5 but may apply evolutionary pressure to Prn and FHA to undergo diversifying selection. These findings offer further insight into the emergence of vaccine-resistant strains of B. pertussis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of HCV Infection with C-Reactive Protein: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009–2010
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 18 February 2019 / Accepted: 21 February 2019 / Published: 24 February 2019
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Abstract
The relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and C-reactive protein (CRP), which is an inflammatory biomarker, is limited in studies with the general population. It was hypothesized that changes in CRP levels are genotype-dependent in the general population with HCV infection. Thus, [...] Read more.
The relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and C-reactive protein (CRP), which is an inflammatory biomarker, is limited in studies with the general population. It was hypothesized that changes in CRP levels are genotype-dependent in the general population with HCV infection. Thus, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of HCV infection and compare CRP levels with an anti-HCV antibody, HCV-RNA status, and HCV genotypes. A total of 5611 adult participants from the National and Health Nutrition Examination (NHANES), 2009–2010 survey were analyzed. Proc survey frequency, means, and multivariate regression were used due to the complex survey design of NHANES. The prevalence of HCV infection among the study population was 1.6%. There were lower mean CRP levels among people with anti-HCV antibody positive status compared to those with antibody negative status (0.12 ± 0.08 vs. 0.24 ± 0.02, p = 0.08, 95% Confidence Intervals, CI: −1.12 to 0.07). Mean CRP levels were also lower in people with HCV-RNA positive status compared to those with HCV-RNA negative status (0.56 ± 0.03 vs. 0.48 ± 0.05, p = 0.62 and 95% CI: −1.37 to 0.86). However, these differences were non-significant. With respect to HCV genotypes, significantly higher CRP levels were noted among people infected with HCV genotype 2 vs. genotype 1 (0.53 ± 0.06 vs. 0.23 ± 0.05, p < 0.01, 95% CI: −0.58 to −0.02) and those with HCV genotype 2 vs. HCV genotype 3 (0.53 ± 0.06, 0.28 ± 0.04, p < 0.01, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.48). Further studies are needed to confirm this finding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantitative Risk Assessment Model of Human Salmonellosis Resulting from Consumption of Broiler Chicken
Received: 30 December 2018 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 7 February 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: Salmonella infections are a major cause of illnesses in the United States. Each year around 450 people die from the disease and more than 23,000 people are hospitalized. Salmonella outbreaks are commonly associated with eggs, meat and poultry. In this study, [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Salmonella infections are a major cause of illnesses in the United States. Each year around 450 people die from the disease and more than 23,000 people are hospitalized. Salmonella outbreaks are commonly associated with eggs, meat and poultry. In this study, a quantitative risk assessment model (QRAM) was developed to determine Salmonella infections in broiler chicken. (2) Methods: Data of positive Salmonella infections were obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System, in addition to published literature. The Decision Tools @RISK add-in software was used for various analyses and to develop the QRAM. The farm-to-fork pathway was modeled as a series of unit operations and associated pathogen events that included initial contamination at the broiler house (node 1), contamination at the slaughter house (node 2), contamination at retail (node 3), cross-contamination during serving and cooking (node 4), and finally the dose–response model after consumption. (3) Results: QRAM of Salmonella infections from broiler meat showed highest contribution of infection from the retail node (33.5%). (4) Conclusions: This QRAM that predicts the risk of Salmonella infections could be used as a guiding tool to manage the Salmonella control programs Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among Children in Osogbo, Nigeria, and the Associated Risk Factors
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 27 January 2019
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Abstract
Tinea capitis is a fungi infection of the scalp that disproportionately affects children in rural and underserved communities in Nigeria. A case-control study was conducted to identify the causative agents and factors that predispose school pupils to tinea capitis in two selected government-owned [...] Read more.
Tinea capitis is a fungi infection of the scalp that disproportionately affects children in rural and underserved communities in Nigeria. A case-control study was conducted to identify the causative agents and factors that predispose school pupils to tinea capitis in two selected government-owned public primary schools in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. A total of 230 participants were included in the study: 115 cases and 115 controls. Head scrapings were collected from pupils with suspected T. capitis lesions, viewed under Potassium Hydroxide smear microscopy and cultured in Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar (SDA) for characteristic fungal elements. A total of 105 (91%) samples were successfully cultured, of which 56% (59/105) were from male pupils. Tricophyton rubrum (34%), Tricophyton mentagrophyte (31%) and Microsporum canis (18%) were the most prevalent organisms. Other dermatophytes obtained include Microsporum nanuum (3%), Epidermophyton floccusum (6%), Tricophyton verucosum (1%), and Microsporum gypseum (8%). Pupils between the ages of 4 and 7 years had the highest distribution (67%) followed by those between the ages of 8 and 11 years (39%). Playing with animals, the sharing of combs and not bathing with soap were significantly associated with tinea capitis infection (P < 0.05) in each case. This study showed a high prevalence of tinea capitis caused by the identified dermatophytes in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Open AccessArticle
Neglected Zoonoses and the Missing Opportunities for One Health Education: The Case of Cystic Echinococcosis among Surgically Operated Patients in Basrah, Southern Iraq
Received: 14 November 2018 / Revised: 24 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 7 January 2019
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Abstract
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is recognized as a neglected disease of public health significance throughout the world, particularly in low and middle-income countries. The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics, attitudes, knowledge, and practices of some Basrah province residents diagnosed with [...] Read more.
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is recognized as a neglected disease of public health significance throughout the world, particularly in low and middle-income countries. The objectives of this study were to describe the characteristics, attitudes, knowledge, and practices of some Basrah province residents diagnosed with CE. Using a questionnaire survey, we interviewed 50 surgically operated cases of CE from Basrah, south Iraq. The cases comprised of 31 females and 19 males, of which 74% originated from rural areas. The questionnaire contained 30 questions and focused on gathering the demographic characteristics of the patients and capturing their overall knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward CE. Approximately half of the participants reported slaughtering livestock at home for their families’ consumption, 78% indicated the presence of a large number of stray dogs roaming freely about their village, 86% reported that they never boiled water before drinking it, and 26% reported not washing vegetables before eating them. Although a large proportion of the participants (72%) had heard of hydatid disease before becoming sick, over half (57%) were not aware of how the disease can be transmitted from animals to humans. This study highlights a gap in One Health education efforts regarding CE in southern Iraq, with a lack of counselling of patients on how to prevent reinfection. An intensive One Health education program should be implemented in Basrah to reduce CE at the human–animal interface. Lack of awareness on zoonoses among medical professionals, who are supposed to disseminate advice on preventative measures to their patients, is a challenge to the public health system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
Open AccessArticle
HIV/AIDS Knowledge of Undergraduate Students at a Historically Black College and University
Received: 8 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 31 October 2018
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Abstract
Objective: This study among 400 undergraduate students enrolled at Jackson State University (JSU) study aimed to assess knowledge about HIV and AIDS among African-American undergraduate students attending a historically black college and university. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Data were collected using a [...] Read more.
Objective: This study among 400 undergraduate students enrolled at Jackson State University (JSU) study aimed to assess knowledge about HIV and AIDS among African-American undergraduate students attending a historically black college and university. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Data were collected using a validated, self-administered, and standardized questionnaire on knowledge regarding risks for HIV and AIDS. Three hundred and eighty-six students (96.5%) had good knowledge about HIV and AIDS, although some participants had misconceptions about the modes of HIV infection transmission. There were no significant gender differences for HIV and AIDS knowledge among the participants (χ2 = 3.05; P = 0.08). In general we concluded that JSU undergraduate students had adequate knowledge about HIV transmission modes and AIDS, although some participants had misconceptions about the routes of HIV infection transmission. Hence, this study calls for strengthening HIV and AIDS awareness education among undergraduate students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Zika Virus and the Risk for Renter Households
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
Recent research on family income indicates that a lack of economic stability can affect healthy housing. Those with limited resources experience higher rates of inadequate and unstable housing many times forcing them to live in undesirable communities in which there can be several [...] Read more.
Recent research on family income indicates that a lack of economic stability can affect healthy housing. Those with limited resources experience higher rates of inadequate and unstable housing many times forcing them to live in undesirable communities in which there can be several community-level health-related issues. One community-level health-related factor of concern has been the reemergence of Zika virus. Some research has indicated that a higher risk of catching Zika virus may exist in neighborhoods and areas with unhealthy housing. Therefore, this study sought to explore the existence of a relationship between rental housing and the Zika virus. Our findings indicated a significant correlation existed between renter occupied household units and the presence of Zika virus. This finding is notable as it indicates that renters have a higher chance of contracting Zika virus than non-renters. Future research should further examine the demographic and housing situation in other communities reporting cases of the Zika virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Other

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Open AccessFeature PaperBrief Report
In-Hospital Surgery as a Risk Factor for Onset of AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli Blood Stream Infections
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
There has been a progressive rise in the incidence of blood stream infections (BSI) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms (MDR GN), which cause increased morbidity and mortality. For this reason, recent studies have focused on risk factors of acquisition of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and [...] Read more.
There has been a progressive rise in the incidence of blood stream infections (BSI) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative organisms (MDR GN), which cause increased morbidity and mortality. For this reason, recent studies have focused on risk factors of acquisition of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. However, there is limited data on risk factors for BSI caused by AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae (AmpC EC), especially in low prevalence settings such as Australia. This study was performed to identify risk factors for acquisition of AmpC E. coli, using a retrospective matched case control design over a 3-year period. Patients with BSI caused by AmpC E. coli were matched with controls (third generation cephalosporin susceptible E. coli) by age and site of infection (n = 21). There was no significant difference in age, sex, clinical outcome, time to onset of BSI, recent antibiotic use (last 3 months), comorbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, renal failure) intensive care unit admission, underlying hematological condition, immunosuppressant use, APACHE II score, or any recent urological procedures (within last 3 months) between the two groups. On univariate analysis, the AmpC E. coli group were more likely to have had a surgical procedure in hospital and lived in a residential aged care facility. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, a recent surgical procedure was associated with the onset of AmpC E. coli BSI (Odd’s Ratio (OR) 4.78, p = 0.034). We concluded that in a relatively low prevalence setting such as Australia, AmpC E. coli BSI is potentially associated with surgery performed in hospital due to previous antibiotic exposure and longer hospitalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infectious Disease Epidemiology)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Acute Diarrhea Associated Hospitalization in South Nouakchott Before and After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction
Author: Dr. Mohamed Lemine

Title: Epidemiology and etiology of diarrhea in Mauritania
Author: Mohamed Lemine

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