Special Issue "Alzheimer's Disease Imaging Biomarkers"

A special issue of Diagnostics (ISSN 2075-4418). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Imaging".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jonathan Wisco

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 E Concord St, L-1004 Boston, MA 02118, USA
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Alzheimer’s disease (AD)—a progressive, neurodegenerative, and incurable disorder—is the most common form of dementia diagnosed in people over the age of 65. AD looms as a major threat to public health in the first half of the 21st Century. Dementia doubles in frequency every five years after age 60, afflicting 1% of those aged 60–64 but rising to 30-40% of those 85 years and older. According to recent national census statistics, by the year 2050, the population of those aged 65 and older in the United States is projected to be 83.7 million, almost double its current estimated number of 43.1 million (in 2012). AD research is progressing steadily, but one aspect continues to elude the basic and clinical sciences: Despite our knowledge of AD pathophysiology and anatomic pathology, in addition to breakthroughs in MRI and PET imaging, a reliable and accurate diagnostic imaging protocol that discriminates AD from other neurodegenerative diseases does not exist. Indeed, neuropathologic examination of postmortem tissue remains the gold standard of AD diagnosis. 

The primary goals of this Special Issue on “Alzheimer's Disease Imaging Biomarkers” are to recount the history of AD imaging breakthroughs, present ongoing cutting edge research, and introduce novel ideas that will advance the field. The Special Issue will include invited and solicited submissions. We welcome your contribution.

With warmest regards,

Prof. Dr. Jonathan J. Wisco
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Diagnostics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 550 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomarkers
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
  • Pathophysiology
  • Diagnostics

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Inhaled Xenon Washout as a Biomarker of Alzheimer’s Disease
Diagnostics 2018, 8(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8020041
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 5 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract
Biomarkers have the potential to aid in the study of Alzheimer’s disease (AD); unfortunately, AD biomarker values often have a high degree of overlap between healthy and AD individuals. This study investigates the potential utility of a series of novel AD biomarkers, the
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Biomarkers have the potential to aid in the study of Alzheimer’s disease (AD); unfortunately, AD biomarker values often have a high degree of overlap between healthy and AD individuals. This study investigates the potential utility of a series of novel AD biomarkers, the sixty second 129Xe retention time, and the xenon washout parameter, based on the washout of hyperpolarized 129Xe from the brain of AD participants following inhalation. The xenon washout parameter is influenced by cerebral perfusion, T1 relaxation of xenon, and the xenon partition coefficient, all factors influenced by AD. Participants with AD (n = 4) and healthy volunteers (n = 4) were imaged using hyperpolarized 129Xe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to determine the amount of retained xenon in the brain. At 60 s after the breath hold, AD patients retained significantly higher amounts of 129Xe compared to healthy controls. Data was fit to a pharmacokinetic model and the xenon washout parameter was extracted. Xenon washout in white and grey matter occurs at a slower rate in Alzheimer’s participants (129Xe half-life time of 42 s and 43 s, respectively) relative to controls (20 s and 16 s, respectively). Following larger scale clinical trials for validation, the xenon washout parameter has the potential to become a useful biomarker for the support of AD diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alzheimer's Disease Imaging Biomarkers)
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Open AccessArticle Multimodal Discrimination between Normal Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease and Prediction of Cognitive Decline
Diagnostics 2018, 8(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8010014
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are associated with widespread changes in brain structure and function, as indicated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometry and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography (FDG PET) metabolism. Nevertheless, the ability to differentiate between AD, MCI and
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Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are associated with widespread changes in brain structure and function, as indicated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometry and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography (FDG PET) metabolism. Nevertheless, the ability to differentiate between AD, MCI and normal aging groups can be difficult. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify the combination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, MRI morphometry, FDG PET metabolism and neuropsychological test scores to that best differentiate between a sample of normal aging subjects and those with MCI and AD from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. The secondary goal was to determine the neuroimaging variables from MRI, FDG PET and CSF biomarkers that can predict future cognitive decline within each group. To achieve these aims, a series of multivariate stepwise logistic and linear regression models were generated. Combining all neuroimaging modalities and cognitive test scores significantly improved the index of discrimination, especially at the earliest stages of the disease, whereas MRI gray matter morphometry variables best predicted future cognitive decline compared to other neuroimaging variables. Overall these findings demonstrate that a multimodal approach using MRI morphometry, FDG PET metabolism, neuropsychological test scores and CSF biomarkers may provide significantly better discrimination than any modality alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alzheimer's Disease Imaging Biomarkers)

Review

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Open AccessReview Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease—From Brain Starch to Bench and Bedside
Diagnostics 2017, 7(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics7030042
Received: 6 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. Over the last three decades, research has advanced dramatically and provided a detailed understanding of the molecular events underlying the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. In parallel, assays for the detection of biomarkers that reflect
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Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. Over the last three decades, research has advanced dramatically and provided a detailed understanding of the molecular events underlying the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. In parallel, assays for the detection of biomarkers that reflect the typical Alzheimer’s disease-associated pathology have been developed and validated in myriads of clinical studies. Such biomarkers complement clinical diagnosis and improve diagnostic accuracy. The use of biomarkers will become even more important with the advent of disease-modifying therapies. Such therapies will likely be most beneficial when administered early in the disease course. Here, we summarise the development of the core Alzheimer’s disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers: amyloid-β and tau. We provide an overview of their role in cellular physiology and Alzheimer’s disease pathology, and embed their development as cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers into the historical context of Alzheimer’s disease research. Finally, we summarise recommendations for their use in clinical practice, and outline perspectives for novel cerebrospinal fluid candidate biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alzheimer's Disease Imaging Biomarkers)
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