Special Issue "Crystals for Thermal Energy Storage"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Energy Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Saman Nimali Gunasekara
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden
Interests: thermal energy storage (TES); phase change material (PCM); sensible heat storage material (SHSM); thermochemical heat storage material (TCM)
Dr. Sedigheh Bigdeli
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
Interests: Calphad; thermodynamic modelling; assessment
Dr. Alenka Ristić
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National Institute of Chemistry Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: crystallization; synthesis; structural characterization; thermal analysis; X ray diffraction; vibrational spectroscopy; composites; sorption materials
Prof. Dr. Cemil Alkan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi, Tokat, Turkey
Interests: polymers; polymer characterization; polymer composites; synthesis of novel phase change materials (PCMs); physical property; structure-property relationships; differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) investigations
Dr. Takahiro Nomura
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Center for Advanced Research of Energy and Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan
Interests: thermal energy storage; phase change material; exergy
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Wangzhong Mu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden
Interests: microstructure and property correlation in thermal energy storage mateirals; thermophysical property analysis, in-situ characterization; crystallization of sustainable metallurgy and chemical engineering
Mr. Christoph Rathgeber
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Bayerisches Zentrum für angewandte Energieforschung, Energy Storage, Garching bei München, Germany
Interests: salt hydrates; solid-liquid phase diagrams; supercooling; crystallization rate measurements

Special Issue Information

Thermal energy storage (TES) is indispensable for today’s energy systems to have flexibility, improved efficiencies and flexible sector coupling and achieve climate targets. TES is mainly realized in materials, where crystals of pure components and mixtures play a primordial role within TES categories: phase change materials (PCMs), thermochemical heat storage materials (TCMs) and sensible heat storage materials (SHSMs). When a crystalline material changes state from solid to liquid (SLPCMs) or solid to solid (SSPCMs), the latent heat of this state change is stored. When a reversible chemical reaction system undergoes the forward/backward reaction involving a crystalline solid absorbent/adsorbent (and a liquid or gaseous ab/adsorbate), the reaction enthalpy is stored/released. When a solid material (crystalline or amorphous) stores heat by means of changing its temperature, it becomes a SHSM. Simply put, crystals are at the heart of TES. The heat transfer and system aspects of TES already have a great momentum within many scientific journals. However, the fundamental, experimental and numerical investigations that evolve around the crystalline materials of TES are the focus of this Special Issue entitled “Crystals for Thermal Energy Storage”. This Special Issue is dedicated as a specific platform for all the crystalline materials research that will elevate the technology readiness level (TRL) of these TES technologies. This topical section serves as the missing link between applied and fundamental research journals, each of which often finds materials research on TES not specific enough for either category. Therefore, “Crystals for TES” is dedicated to, and thus welcomes, all crystalline-materials-based TES scientific research of exceptional quality in order to bridge the gap between the applied and fundamental research worlds. Authors are therefore invited to submit their relevant research contributions on crystalline materials for TES to this Special Issue.

Dr. Saman Nimali Gunasekara
Dr. Sedigheh Bigdeli
Dr. Alenka Ristić
Prof. Dr. Cemil Alkan
Dr. Takahiro Nomura
Dr. Wangzhong Mu
Mr. Christoph Rathgeber
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • thermal energy storage (TES)
  • phase change material (PCM)
  • sensible heat storage material (SHSM)
  • thermochemical heat storage material (TCM)
  • unary material/single component/pure material
  • multicomponent material system
  • equilibrium
  • synthesis
  • characterization of materials
  • thermal analysis
  • structural analysis

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Tailoring Water Adsorption Capacity of APO-Tric
Crystals 2021, 11(7), 773; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11070773 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 353
Abstract
Microporous triclinic AlPO4-34, known as APO-Tric, serves as an excellent water adsorbent in thermal energy storage, especially for low temperature thermochemical energy storage. Increased water adsorption capacity of thermochemical material usually leads to higher thermal energy storage capacity, thus offering improved [...] Read more.
Microporous triclinic AlPO4-34, known as APO-Tric, serves as an excellent water adsorbent in thermal energy storage, especially for low temperature thermochemical energy storage. Increased water adsorption capacity of thermochemical material usually leads to higher thermal energy storage capacity, thus offering improved performance of the adsorbent. The main disadvantage of aluminophosphate-based TCM materials is their high cost due to the use of expensive organic templates acting as structure directing agents. Using ionic liquids as low cost solvents with associated structure directing role can increase the availability of these water adsorbents for TES applications. Here, a green synthesis of APO-Tric crystals at elevated and ambient pressure by using 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide ionic liquid is presented. Large 200 µm romboid shaped monocrystals were obtained at 200 °C after 6 days. The structure of APO-Tric and the presence of 1,3-dimetylimidazolium cation in the micropores were determined by single crystal XRD at room temperature and 150 K. Water sorption capacity of APO-Tric prepared by ionothermal synthesis at elevated pressure increased in comparison to the material obtained at hydrothermal synthesis most probably due to additional structural defects obtained after calcination. The reuse of exhausted ionic liquid was also confirmed, which adds to the reduction of toxicity and cost production of the aluminophosphate synthesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystals for Thermal Energy Storage)
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Article
Experimental Comparison of Innovative Composite Sorbents for Space Heating and Domestic Hot Water Storage
Crystals 2021, 11(5), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11050476 - 24 Apr 2021
Viewed by 392
Abstract
In this study, the development and comparative characterization of different composite sorbents for thermal energy storage applications is reported. Two different applications were targeted, namely, low-temperature space heating (SH) and domestic hot water (DHW) provision. From a literature analysis, the most promising hygroscopic [...] Read more.
In this study, the development and comparative characterization of different composite sorbents for thermal energy storage applications is reported. Two different applications were targeted, namely, low-temperature space heating (SH) and domestic hot water (DHW) provision. From a literature analysis, the most promising hygroscopic salts were selected for these conditions, being LiCl for SH and LiBr for DHW. Furthermore, two mesoporous silica gel matrixes and a macroporous vermiculite were acquired to prepare the composites. A complete characterization was performed by investigating the porous structure of the composites before and after impregnation, through N2 physisorption, as well as checking the phase composition of the composites at different temperatures through X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. Furthermore, sorption equilibrium curves were measured in water vapor atmosphere to evaluate the adsorption capacity of the samples and a detailed calorimetric analysis was carried out to evaluate the reaction evolution under real operating conditions as well as the sorption heat of each sample. The results demonstrated a slower reaction kinetic in the vermiculite-based composites, due to the larger size of salt grains embedded in the pores, while promising volumetric storage densities of 0.7 GJ/m3 and 0.4 GJ/m3 in silica gel-based composites were achieved for SH and DHW applications, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystals for Thermal Energy Storage)
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Article
High Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity, Long Durability Form-Stable Phase Change Composite Enhanced by a Carbon Fiber Network Structure
Crystals 2021, 11(3), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030230 - 25 Feb 2021
Viewed by 474
Abstract
To address the drawback of low thermal conductivity of conventional organic phase change materials (PCMs), a paraffin-wax-based phase change composite (PCC) was assembled via a vacuum impregnation method, using a new type of carbon fiber network material as the supporting matrix. The carbon [...] Read more.
To address the drawback of low thermal conductivity of conventional organic phase change materials (PCMs), a paraffin-wax-based phase change composite (PCC) was assembled via a vacuum impregnation method, using a new type of carbon fiber network material as the supporting matrix. The carbon fiber sheet (CFS) material exhibited a network structure comprising high-thermal-conductivity carbon fibers, beneficial for enhancing the heat transfer properties of the PCC. The sheet-shaped carbon fiber material was stacked and compressed, and then impregnated with the liquid paraffin wax PCM to form the composite. The thermal conductivity, durability, shape stability, chemical stability, and heat storage characteristics of the PCC specimen were carefully analyzed. The maximum thermal conductivity of the PCC was 11.68 W·m−1·K−1 (4670% compared to that of pure paraffin) in the radial direction, and 0.93 W·m−1·K−1 in the axial direction of the sample, with 17.44 vol % of added CFS. The thermal conductivity retention rate after 200 thermal cycles was 78.6%. The PCC also displayed good stability in terms of chemical structure, shape, and heat storage ability. This study offers insights and a possible strategy for the development of anisotropic high-thermal-conductivity PCCs for potential applications in latent heat storage systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystals for Thermal Energy Storage)
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Article
Assessment of the Thermal Properties of Aromatic Esters as Novel Phase Change Materials
Crystals 2020, 10(10), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10100919 - 10 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1211
Abstract
In the quest for a decarbonized energy system, the development of highly efficient technologies that allow the integration of renewables is of the utmost importance. Latent Heat Storage systems with Phase Change Materials (PCM) can contribute to solving the issue of the mismatch [...] Read more.
In the quest for a decarbonized energy system, the development of highly efficient technologies that allow the integration of renewables is of the utmost importance. Latent Heat Storage systems with Phase Change Materials (PCM) can contribute to solving the issue of the mismatch between demand and supply brought forward by renewable energies. Despite possessing promising thermal properties, organic PCMs and esters in particular have rarely been investigated. In the present study, eight commercial aromatic esters are assessed as possible PCM candidates. To do so, their thermal properties, such as phase change temperature, enthalpy of fusion, density, and thermal conductivity, alongside sustainability and toxicity issues, are considered. The aromatic esters are found to possess phase change temperatures between −16 C and 190 C and maximum enthalpies of fusion of 160 J/g. This, alongside densities above 1 g/mL, makes them interesting candidates for high-temperature applications, where, typically, salts and ceramics or metals dominate as PCMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystals for Thermal Energy Storage)
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