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Article

Thermal Energy Storage Materials (TESMs)—What Does It Take to Make Them Fly?

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Department of Energy Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvägen 68, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden
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Department of Materials Science & Physical Chemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
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Lucerne School of Engineering and Architecture, Institute of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Technology (IME), Technikumstrasse 21, Horw, 6048 Lucern, Switzerland
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National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, SI-1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, TU Wien, Getreidemarkt 9, 1060 Vienna, Austria
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Chemistry Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Çukurova University, Balcali Mah. Saricam, Adana 01310, Turkey
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Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research—ZAE Bayern, Walther-Meissner-Str. 6, 85748 Garching, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yifei Yuan
Crystals 2021, 11(11), 1276; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11111276
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 8 October 2021 / Accepted: 14 October 2021 / Published: 21 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystals for Thermal Energy Storage)
Thermal Energy Storage Materials (TESMs) may be the missing link to the “carbon neutral future” of our dreams. TESMs already cater to many renewable heating, cooling and thermal management applications. However, many challenges remain in finding optimal TESMs for specific requirements. Here, we combine literature, a bibliometric analysis and our experiences to elaborate on the true potential of TESMs. This starts with the evolution, fundamentals, and categorization of TESMs: phase change materials (PCMs), thermochemical heat storage materials (TCMs) and sensible thermal energy storage materials (STESMs). PCMs are the most researched, followed by STESMs and TCMs. China, the European Union (EU), the USA, India and the UK lead TESM publications globally, with Spain, France, Germany, Italy and Sweden leading in the EU. Dissemination and communication gaps on TESMs appear to hinder their deployment. Salt hydrates, alkanes, fatty acids, polyols, and esters lead amongst PCMs. Salt hydrates, hydroxides, hydrides, carbonates, ammines and composites dominate TCMs. Besides water, ceramics, rocks and molten salts lead as STESMs for large-scale applications. We discuss TESMs’ trends, gaps and barriers for commercialization, plus missing links from laboratory-to-applications. In conclusion, we present research paths and tasks to make these remarkable materials fly on the market by unveiling their potential to realize a carbon neutral future. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermal energy storage (TES); Thermal Energy Storage Materials (TESMs); sensible thermal energy storage materials (STESMs); phase change materials (PCMs); thermochemical heat storage materials (TCMs); carbon neutral future thermal energy storage (TES); Thermal Energy Storage Materials (TESMs); sensible thermal energy storage materials (STESMs); phase change materials (PCMs); thermochemical heat storage materials (TCMs); carbon neutral future
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gunasekara, S.N.; Barreneche, C.; Inés Fernández, A.; Calderón, A.; Ravotti, R.; Ristić, A.; Weinberger, P.; Ömur Paksoy, H.; Koçak, B.; Rathgeber, C.; Ningwei Chiu, J.; Stamatiou, A. Thermal Energy Storage Materials (TESMs)—What Does It Take to Make Them Fly? Crystals 2021, 11, 1276. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11111276

AMA Style

Gunasekara SN, Barreneche C, Inés Fernández A, Calderón A, Ravotti R, Ristić A, Weinberger P, Ömur Paksoy H, Koçak B, Rathgeber C, Ningwei Chiu J, Stamatiou A. Thermal Energy Storage Materials (TESMs)—What Does It Take to Make Them Fly? Crystals. 2021; 11(11):1276. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11111276

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gunasekara, Saman N., Camila Barreneche, A. Inés Fernández, Alejandro Calderón, Rebecca Ravotti, Alenka Ristić, Peter Weinberger, Halime Ömur Paksoy, Burcu Koçak, Christoph Rathgeber, Justin Ningwei Chiu, and Anastasia Stamatiou. 2021. "Thermal Energy Storage Materials (TESMs)—What Does It Take to Make Them Fly?" Crystals 11, no. 11: 1276. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11111276

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