Special Issue "Investigation of Nanostructures with X-ray Scattering Techniques"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Crystal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Dominik Kriegner Website 1 Website 2 E-Mail
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids Dresden, Germany
Interests: thin films and nanostructures; diffraction techniques; coherent diffraction
Guest Editor
Dr. Milan Dopita Website 1 Website 2 E-Mail
Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
Interests: nanoparticles; nanocrystalline coatings; X-ray scattering

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The structural investigations of nanomaterials motivated by their large variety and diverse set of applications have attracted considerable attention. In particular, the ever-improving machinery, both in the laboratory and at large scale facilities, as well as the methodical improvements available for studying nanostructures ranging from epitaxial nanomaterials, nanocrystalline thin films, and coatings, to nanoparticles and colloidal nanocrystals, allows us to gain a more detailed understanding of their crystalline properties. As the structure essentially determines the physical properties of the materials, this advances the possibilities of structural studies and also enables a deeper understanding of the structure to property relationships. As nanostructures are interesting for their various and tunable properties, including their magnetic, optic, and thermal properties, the structural studies are pushing the limits in our understanding of matter in general.

We invite researchers studying nanostructures using scattering techniques, or developing such methods to contribute to the Special Issue, Investigation of Nanostructures with X-ray Scattering Techniques, which should serve as a forum to discuss the recent improvements and the state of the art in structural studies on nanostructures.

The potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

- structural properties of nanomaterials

- strain determination in nanostructures

- structure to property relationships

- development of scattering techniques aimed at nanostructures

- coherent diffraction applied to nanostructures

Dr. Dominik Kriegner
Dr. Milan Dopita
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanostructures
  • nanocrystals
  • nanowires
  • nanoparticles
  • thin-films
  • strain determination
  • scattering techniques
  • coherent diffraction
  • nanostructure properties

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Application of GISAXS in the Investigation of Three-Dimensional Lattices of Nanostructures
Crystals 2019, 9(9), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9090479 - 13 Sep 2019
Abstract
The application of the grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) technique for the investigation of three-dimensional lattices of nanostructures is demonstrated. A successful analysis of three-dimensionally ordered nanostructures requires applying a suitable model for the description of the nanostructure ordering. Otherwise, it is possible [...] Read more.
The application of the grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) technique for the investigation of three-dimensional lattices of nanostructures is demonstrated. A successful analysis of three-dimensionally ordered nanostructures requires applying a suitable model for the description of the nanostructure ordering. Otherwise, it is possible to get a good agreement between the experimental and the simulated data, but the parameters obtained by fitting may be completely incorrect. In this paper, we theoretically examine systems having different types of nanostructure ordering, and we show how the choice of the correct model for the description of ordering influences the analysis results. Several theoretical models are compared in order to show how to use GISAXS in the investigation of self-assembled arrays of nanoparticles, and also in arrays of nanostructures obtained by ion-beam treatment of thin films or surfaces. All models are supported by experimental data, and the possibilities and limitations of GISAXS for the determination of material structure are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation of Nanostructures with X-ray Scattering Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
Composition of ω-Phase Particles in Ti(Mo) Alloys Studied by Anomalous X-ray Diffraction
Crystals 2019, 9(9), 440; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9090440 - 23 Aug 2019
Abstract
Nanoparticles of hexagonal ω phase in bcc-Ti(Mo) single crystals (β phase) occur due to a diffusionless athermal β to ω transformation and they grow during follow-up ageing at elevated temperatures, while the alloying atoms (Mo in our case) are expelled from the [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles of hexagonal ω phase in bcc-Ti(Mo) single crystals ( β phase) occur due to a diffusionless athermal β to ω transformation and they grow during follow-up ageing at elevated temperatures, while the alloying atoms (Mo in our case) are expelled from the nanoparticle volumes. We investigated the Mo content in growing ω nanoparticles by anomalous X-ray diffraction and demonstrate that the Mo expulsion from the ω phase is not full; a thin shell of a nanoparticles where the β to ω transformation is not complete still contains a considerable amount of Mo atoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation of Nanostructures with X-ray Scattering Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
Combining Nanofocused X-Rays with Electrical Measurements at the NanoMAX Beamline
Crystals 2019, 9(8), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9080432 - 20 Aug 2019
Abstract
The advent of nanofocused X-ray beams has allowed the study of single nanocrystals and complete nanoscale devices in a nondestructive manner, using techniques such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Further insight into semiconductor devices can [...] Read more.
The advent of nanofocused X-ray beams has allowed the study of single nanocrystals and complete nanoscale devices in a nondestructive manner, using techniques such as scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Further insight into semiconductor devices can be achieved by combining these techniques with simultaneous electrical measurements. Here, we present a system for electrical biasing and current measurement of single nanostructure devices, which has been developed for the NanoMAX beamline at the fourth-generation synchrotron, MAX IV, Sweden. The system was tested on single InP nanowire devices. The mechanical stability was sufficient to collect scanning XRD and XRF maps with a 50 nm diameter focus. The dark noise of the current measurement system was about 3 fA, which allowed fly scan measurements of X-ray beam induced current (XBIC) in single nanowire devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation of Nanostructures with X-ray Scattering Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
Coherent Magnetization Rotation of a Layered System Observed by Polarized Neutron Scattering under Grazing Incidence Geometry
Crystals 2019, 9(8), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9080383 - 26 Jul 2019
Abstract
The in-plane magnetic structure of a layered system composed of polycrystalline grains smaller than the ferromagnetic exchange length was studied to elucidate the mechanism controlling the magnetic properties considerably different from the bulk using polarized neutron scattering under grazing incidence geometry. The measured [...] Read more.
The in-plane magnetic structure of a layered system composed of polycrystalline grains smaller than the ferromagnetic exchange length was studied to elucidate the mechanism controlling the magnetic properties considerably different from the bulk using polarized neutron scattering under grazing incidence geometry. The measured result, together with quantitative analysis based on the distorted wave Born approximation, showed that the in-plane length of the area with a uniform orientation of moments ranging from 0.5–1.1 μ m was not significantly varied during the process of demagnetization followed by remagnetization. The obtained behavior of moments is in good agreement with the two-dimensional random anisotropy model where coherent magnetization rotation is dominant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation of Nanostructures with X-ray Scattering Techniques)
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Open AccessArticle
Epitaxial Order Driven by Surface Corrugation: Quinquephenyl Crystals on a Cu(110)-(2×1)O Surface
Crystals 2019, 9(7), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9070373 - 22 Jul 2019
Abstract
A 30 nm thick quinquephenyl (5P) film was grown by molecular beam deposition on a Cu(110)(2×1)O single crystal surface. The thin film morphology was studied by light microscopy and atomic force microscopy and the crystallographic structure of the thin film was investigated by [...] Read more.
A 30 nm thick quinquephenyl (5P) film was grown by molecular beam deposition on a Cu(110)(2×1)O single crystal surface. The thin film morphology was studied by light microscopy and atomic force microscopy and the crystallographic structure of the thin film was investigated by X-ray diffraction methods. The 5P molecules crystallise epitaxially with (201)5P parallel to the substrate surface (110)Cu and with their long molecular axes parallel to [001]Cu. The observed epitaxial alignment cannot be explained by lattice matching calculations. Although a clear minimum in the lattice misfit exists, it is not adapted by the epitaxial growth of 5P crystals. Instead the formation of epitaxially oriented crystallites is determined by atomic corrugations of the substrate surface, such that the initially adsorbed 5P molecules fill with its rod-like shape the periodic grooves of the substrate. Subsequent crystal growth follows the orientation and alignment of the molecules taken within the initial growth stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Investigation of Nanostructures with X-ray Scattering Techniques)
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