Special Issue "Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Hirshfeld Surface Analysis of Coordination Compounds"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Hybrid and Composite Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Waldemar Maniukiewicz
Website SciProfiles
Guest Editor
Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
Interests: coordination chemistry; solid-state chemistry; medicinal chemistry; x-ray crystallography; solid-state synthesis; crystal engineering; molecular structure; polymorphism
Dr. Ghodrat Mahmoudi
Website
Guest Editor
University of Maragheh, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Maragheh, Iran
Interests: Inorganic synthesis; coordination complexes; structural chemistry; solid-state characterization; crystal engineering; structure analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is worth recalling that as of last year, 125 years have passed since the pioneering work of Alfred Werner on the stereochemistry of coordination compounds which emphasized the number and nature of the groups attached to the metal ion. These compounds are still compelling and experimentally demanding frontiers in modern inorganic chemistry. Every year we observe the emergence of scientific reports on the synthesis of new complexes with unexpected bonding modes, structures, and properties.

This Special Issue of “Crystals” is expected to provide an excellent platform to report results that highlight the synthesis and crystal structures of coordination compounds. Furthermore, Hirshfeld surface analysis has become a widely used method, which is exploring intermolecular interactions within a crystal structure in a remarkable way.

As Guest Editor, I invite scientists from various fields to submit articles which discuss the crystal chemistry of coordination chemistry. This includes examples of synthesis and experimentally determined crystal structures. The new approaches towards the synthesis of coordination complexes are particularly encouraged.

Dr. Waldemar Maniukiewicz
Dr. Ghodrat Mahmoudi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Coordination complexes
  • Synthesis
  • Crystal and molecular structure
  • Hirshfeld surface analysis
  • Non-covalent interactions

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Experimental-Computational Characterization of a Copper/Vanadium Compound with Potential Anticancer Activity
Crystals 2020, 10(6), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10060492 - 08 Jun 2020
Abstract
Cancer represents a major worldwide public health problem. While significant advances in different fronts are being made to combat the disease, the development of new metal-based drugs with cytotoxic capabilities is of high relevance. This work presents a heterobimetallic molecule comprising two moieties [...] Read more.
Cancer represents a major worldwide public health problem. While significant advances in different fronts are being made to combat the disease, the development of new metal-based drugs with cytotoxic capabilities is of high relevance. This work presents a heterobimetallic molecule comprising two moieties with a structure similar to Casiopeina II-gly. One of them has a cyclotetravanadate anion that functions as an inorganic bridge coordinating two Cu (II) atoms resulting in a hexanuclear [Cu(phen)(Gly)-µ2-V4O12-Cu(phen)(Gly)]2− complex, which is counterbalanced by two isolated [Cu(phen)(Gly)(H2O)]1+ cations. Ten water molecules arranged in two sets of five-member chains also play an essential role in the 3D supramolecular structure of the compound. The molecule was designed to provide Cu and V, two metals with proven anticancer capabilities in the same molecular structure. The compound was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis; visible, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopies; 51V Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; cyclic voltammetry; and monocrystalline X-ray diffraction. The structural, spectroscopic, and electronic properties of the compound were calculated through the density functional theory (DFT) using the Minnesota functional M06-2X and the Def2TZVP/LANL2TZ(f) basis sets with an effective core potential (ECP) for metals. Noncovalent interactions were analyzed using a natural population analysis (NPA) and Hirshfeld surfaces. The compound upon dissociation provides two metals that can interact with important biological targets in a variety of cancer cell models. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis, Structural Characterization and Hirshfeld Surface Analysis of a 2D Coordination Polymer, [Co(4-dpds)(bdc)(H2O)2] 4-dpds
Crystals 2020, 10(5), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10050419 - 24 May 2020
Abstract
A two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymer, [Co(4-dpds)(bdc)(H2O)2]·4-dpds (1) (4-dpds = 4,4′-dipyridyldusulfide and bdc2− = dianion of benzenedicarboxylic acid), has been synthesized and structurally determined by single-crystal X-ray diffractometer. In 1, the bdc2− and 4-dpds both [...] Read more.
A two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymer, [Co(4-dpds)(bdc)(H2O)2]·4-dpds (1) (4-dpds = 4,4′-dipyridyldusulfide and bdc2− = dianion of benzenedicarboxylic acid), has been synthesized and structurally determined by single-crystal X-ray diffractometer. In 1, the bdc2− and 4-dpds both act as bridging ligands connecting the Co(II) ions to form a 2D wrinkled-like layered coordination polymer. Two wrinkled-like layered coordination polymers are mutually penetrated to generate a doubly interpenetrated framework, and then extended to its 3D architecture via the supramolecular forces between doubly interpenetrated 2D frameworks and free 4-dpds ligands by intermolecular O–H⋅⋅⋅N hydrogen bonding interaction. Crystal packing arrangements were characterized by fingerprint plots, which were derived from the Hirshfeld Surfaces analysis, and showed that intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions are the most important interactions on the construction of the crystal 1. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Silver(I) and Copper(I) Complexation with Decachloro-Closo-Decaborate Anion
Crystals 2020, 10(5), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10050389 - 10 May 2020
Abstract
A series of complexation reactions of silver(I) and copper(I) in the presence of a polyhedral weakly coordinating [B10Cl10]2− anion has been carried out. The effect of the solvent and the presence of Ph3P on the composition [...] Read more.
A series of complexation reactions of silver(I) and copper(I) in the presence of a polyhedral weakly coordinating [B10Cl10]2− anion has been carried out. The effect of the solvent and the presence of Ph3P on the composition and structure of the reaction product were studied. Eight novel complexes were obtained and characterized by 11B Nuclear magnetic resonance, Infra-Red, and Raman spectroscopies as well as powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The [B10Cl10]2− anion demonstrated weaker coordinating ability towards coinage metals than [B10H10]2− at similar reaction conditions. The [B10Cl10]2− anion remains unreacted in the copper(I) complexation reaction, while in the absence of competing ligands, we obtained the first complexes containing decachloro-closo-decaborate anion directly coordinated by the metal atom. The bonding between metal atoms and the boron cluster anions was studied using the atomic Hirshfeld surfaces. Besides edge and face coordination of the polyhedral anion, this method allowed us to reveal the Ag–Ag bond in crystal of {Ag2(DMF)2[B10Cl10]}n, the presence of which was additionally supported by the Raman spectroscopy data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Formation of Unsymmetrical Trinuclear Metallamacrocycles Based on Two Different Cone Calix[4]arene Macrocyclic Rings
Crystals 2020, 10(5), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10050364 - 01 May 2020
Abstract
A combination of tetrasulfonylcalix[4]arene (3-4H) together with a calix[4]arene dicarboxylate derivative 2-4H led, in the presence of MII(NO3)2 (M = Co, Ni, Zn), to the formation of three novel isostructural metallomacrocycles of formula [M3 [...] Read more.
A combination of tetrasulfonylcalix[4]arene (3-4H) together with a calix[4]arene dicarboxylate derivative 2-4H led, in the presence of MII(NO3)2 (M = Co, Ni, Zn), to the formation of three novel isostructural metallomacrocycles of formula [M3(DMF)23-H2O)-(2-2H)-3]. The structure of the prepared coordination compounds was studied in the solid state using single crystal/powder X-ray diffraction studies. The X-ray diffraction on single crystal revealed that the structure of the obtained supramolecular complexes is composed of a trinuclear metallic cluster [M3]+6 held between one di-deprotonated molecule of (2-2H)2− offering two carboxylate groups for binding metal cations and one tetra-deprotonated compound 34−, where four oxygen atoms, belonging to four deprotonated phenolic moieties and three oxygen atoms coming from three SO2 groups, are coordinated with the cluster core. Thus, an example of an easily reproducible molecular recognition pattern involving two different types of calix[4]arene based ligands, displaying different coordination moieties, and trinuclear metallic clusters, is reported here. In addition, it has been shown that the cone moieties of the calixarene also encapsulate solvent molecules. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Halogen Bonding in New Dichloride-Cobalt(II) Complex with Iodo Substituted Chalcone Ligands
Crystals 2020, 10(5), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10050354 - 30 Apr 2020
Abstract
The synthesis and properties of new chalcone ligand 4I-L ((2E)-1-[4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenyl]-3-(4-iodophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one) and tetracoordinate Co(II) complex [Co(4I-L)2Cl2], (1a), are reported in this article. Upon recrystallization of 1a, the single crystals of [Co(4I-L)4Cl2]·2DMF·3Et2O (1b) were obtained [...] Read more.
The synthesis and properties of new chalcone ligand 4I-L ((2E)-1-[4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)phenyl]-3-(4-iodophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one) and tetracoordinate Co(II) complex [Co(4I-L)2Cl2], (1a), are reported in this article. Upon recrystallization of 1a, the single crystals of [Co(4I-L)4Cl2]·2DMF·3Et2O (1b) were obtained and crystal structure was determined using X-ray diffraction. The non-covalent interactions in 1b were thoroughly analyzed and special attention was dedicated to interactions formed by the peripheral iodine substituents. The density functional theory (DFT), atoms in molecule (AIM) and noncovalent interaction (NCI) methods and electronic localization function (ELF) calculations were used to investigate halogen bond formed between the iodine functional groups and co-crystallized molecules of diethyl ether. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Structural, Non-Covalent Interaction, and Natural Bond Orbital Studies on Bromido-Tricarbonyl Rhenium(I) Complexes Bearing Alkyl-Substituted 1,4-Diazabutadiene (DAB) Ligands
Crystals 2020, 10(4), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10040267 - 01 Apr 2020
Abstract
The synthesis, characterization, structural and computational studies of Re(I) tricarbonyl bromo complexes bearing alkyl-substituted 1,4-diazabutadiene ligands, [Re(CO)3(1,4-DAB)Br], where 1,4-DAB = N,N-bis(2,4-dimethylbenzene)-1,4-diazabutadiene, 2,4-Me2DAB (1); N,N-bis(2,4-dimethylbenzene)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diazabutadiene, 2,4-Me2DABMe (2); N,N-bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzene)-1,4-diazabutadiene, 2,4,6-Me3 [...] Read more.
The synthesis, characterization, structural and computational studies of Re(I) tricarbonyl bromo complexes bearing alkyl-substituted 1,4-diazabutadiene ligands, [Re(CO)3(1,4-DAB)Br], where 1,4-DAB = N,N-bis(2,4-dimethylbenzene)-1,4-diazabutadiene, 2,4-Me2DAB (1); N,N-bis(2,4-dimethylbenzene)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diazabutadiene, 2,4-Me2DABMe (2); N,N-bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzene)-1,4-diazabutadiene, 2,4,6-Me3DAB (3); and N,N-bis(2,6-diisopropylbenzene)-1,4-diazabutadiene, 2,6-ipr2DAB (4) are reported. The complexes were characterized by different spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and elemental analyses and their solid-state structures were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. In each complex, the Re(I) centre shows a distorted octahedral shape with a facial geometry of carbonyl groups. The gas phase geometry of the complexes was identified by density functional theory. Interesting intermolecular nπ* interactions of complexes 1 and 3 were investigated by non-covalent interaction index (NCI), and natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses. The intramolecular nσ*, σπ*, πσ* interactions were also studied in complexes 3 and 4. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Terbium-Tetracarboxylate Framework as a Luminescent Probe for the Selective Detection of Nitrofurazone
Crystals 2020, 10(3), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10030222 - 20 Mar 2020
Abstract
A novel terbium-tetracarboxylate framework with the 5,5’-(diazene-1,2-iyl)diisophthalic acid (H4abtc) ligand, formulated as [Tb(Habtc)(DMSO)(H2O)2]n (ZTU-5), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. ZTU-5 features a 2D-layered structure constructed by the binuclear terbium secondary building units (SBUs) [...] Read more.
A novel terbium-tetracarboxylate framework with the 5,5’-(diazene-1,2-iyl)diisophthalic acid (H4abtc) ligand, formulated as [Tb(Habtc)(DMSO)(H2O)2]n (ZTU-5), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. ZTU-5 features a 2D-layered structure constructed by the binuclear terbium secondary building units (SBUs) and abtc4– ligand, which can be further expanded into a 3D-supramolecular framework by the hydrogen bond interactions. In addition, the magnetic and fluorescence properties of ZTU-5 are investigated and ZTU-5 exhibits highly selective and sensitive detection of nitrofurazone (NZF). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Double Palindrome Water Chain in Cu(II) Theophylline Complex. Synthesis, Characterization, Biological Activity of Cu(II), Zn(II) Complexes with Theophylline
Crystals 2020, 10(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10020097 - 08 Feb 2020
Abstract
Two metal complexes of theophylline were synthesized. Namely, 1 with the formula [Cu(theop)2(H2O)3]·2H2O and 2, [Zn(theop)2]∙H2O (where: theop = theophylline ion). Their properties were thoroughly investigated by the elemental analysis [...] Read more.
Two metal complexes of theophylline were synthesized. Namely, 1 with the formula [Cu(theop)2(H2O)3]·2H2O and 2, [Zn(theop)2]∙H2O (where: theop = theophylline ion). Their properties were thoroughly investigated by the elemental analysis (EA), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) that were augmented by antimicrobial and antioxidant analyses. Their radical scavenging ability (RSA) is notably higher than that of a pure theophylline itself. Similarly to theophylline complexes already studied by us 3, [Mn(theop)2(H2O)4] 4, [Co(theop)2(H2O)4] and 5, [Ni(theop)2(H2O)4] title compounds are inactive against Gram-negative bacteria, but they show moderate or mild activity against Gram-positive rods. The low temperature, single crystal X-ray diffraction technique determines the crystal structure of 1. Its supramolecular crystal topology is affected by the unique, double palindrome water chain that formed by two conserved and a sole coordinated water molecules. Crystal packing arrangements were characterized by fingerprint plots that were derived from the Hirshfeld surfaces (HS), as calculated for all structures in the series 1, 3, 4, 5. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Supramolecular Architecture in a Ni(II) Complex with a Weakly Bonded N,N′-(1,4-phenylenedi- carbonyl)Diglycinate Counter-Anion: Crystal Structure Investigation and Hirshfeld Surface Analysis
Crystals 2019, 9(12), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9120615 - 23 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this work, we describe the structural investigation of a Ni(II) complex, [Ni(C12H8N2)2(H2O)2]2·(C12H10N2O6)·(NO3)2·10H2O, with phenanthroline [...] Read more.
In this work, we describe the structural investigation of a Ni(II) complex, [Ni(C12H8N2)2(H2O)2]2·(C12H10N2O6)·(NO3)2·10H2O, with phenanthroline ligands, a deprotonated aromatic dicarboxylic acid, N,N′-(1,4-phenylenedicarbonyl)diglycine, and a nitrate as counter-anions, as well as water molecules. Noncovalent interactions, such as π–π stacking, lone-pair···π, and C–H···π between the phenanthrolines of the cationic complex, [Ni(C12H8N2)2(H2O)2]2+, and counter-anions are observed. Moreover, the solvated and noncoordinating counter-anion, N,N′-(1,4-phenylenedicarbonyl)diglycinate, is embedded in classical and nonclassical hydrogen-bonding interactions with water molecules and phenanthrolines. The two water molecules coordinated by the NiII atom and hydrogen bonded to the carboxylate of the N,N′-(1,4-phenylenedicarbonyl)diglycinate show attractive secondary electrostatic interactions, and a DD/AA hydrogen bonding pattern is formed. The noncovalent interactions of the cationic complex and the solvated N,N′-(1,4-phenylenedicarbonyl)diglycinate counter anion were explored with a Hirshfeld surface analysis, and related contributions to crystal cohesion were determined. The results of the N,N′-(1,4-phenylenedicarbonyl)diglycinate counter anion were compared to those of a solvated N,N′-(1,4-phenylenedicarbonyl)diglycine molecule of a previously described copper(II) complex. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Trinodal Self-Penetrating Nets from Reactions of 1,4-Bis(alkoxy)-2,5-bis(3,2’:6’,3’’-terpyridin-4’-yl)benzene Ligands with Cobalt(II) Thiocyanate
Crystals 2019, 9(10), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9100529 - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
The tetratopic ligands 1,4-bis(2-ethylbutoxy)-2,5-bis(3,2’:6’,3’’-terpyridin-4’-yl)benzene (1) and 1,4-bis(3-methylbutoxy)-2,5-bis(3,2’:6’,3’’-terpyridin-4’-yl)benzene (2) have been prepared and characterized by 1H and 13C{1H} NMR, IR, and absorption spectroscopies and mass spectrometry. Reactions of 1 and 2 with cobalt(II) thiocyanate under conditions [...] Read more.
The tetratopic ligands 1,4-bis(2-ethylbutoxy)-2,5-bis(3,2’:6’,3’’-terpyridin-4’-yl)benzene (1) and 1,4-bis(3-methylbutoxy)-2,5-bis(3,2’:6’,3’’-terpyridin-4’-yl)benzene (2) have been prepared and characterized by 1H and 13C{1H} NMR, IR, and absorption spectroscopies and mass spectrometry. Reactions of 1 and 2 with cobalt(II) thiocyanate under conditions of crystal growth at room temperature result in the formation of [{Co(1)(NCS)2}·MeOH·3CHCl3]n and [{Co(2)(NCS)2}·0.8MeOH·1.8CHCl3]n. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that each crystal lattice consists of a trinodal self-penetrating (62.84)(64.82)(65.8)2 net. The nodes are defined by two independent cobalt centres and the centroids of two crystallographically independent ligands which are topologically equivalent. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Unexpected Trinuclear Cobalt(II) Complex Based on a Half-Salamo-Like Ligand: Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Hirshfeld Surface Analysis, Antimicrobial and Fluorescent Properties
Crystals 2019, 9(8), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9080408 - 06 Aug 2019
Abstract
An unexpected trinuclear Co(II) complex, [Co3(L2)2(μ-OAc)2(CH3OH)2]·2CH3OH (H2L2 = 4,4′-dibromo-2,2′-[ethylenedioxybis(nitrilomethylidyne)]diphenol) constructed from a half-Salamo-based ligand (HL1 = 2-[O-(1-ethyloxyamide)]oxime-4-bromophenol) and Co(OAc)2·4H [...] Read more.
An unexpected trinuclear Co(II) complex, [Co3(L2)2(μ-OAc)2(CH3OH)2]·2CH3OH (H2L2 = 4,4′-dibromo-2,2′-[ethylenedioxybis(nitrilomethylidyne)]diphenol) constructed from a half-Salamo-based ligand (HL1 = 2-[O-(1-ethyloxyamide)]oxime-4-bromophenol) and Co(OAc)2·4H2O, has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectra (IR), UV-Vis spectra, X-ray crystallography and Hirshfeld surface analysis. The Co(II) complex contains three Co(II) atoms, two completely deprotonated (L2)2− units, two bridged acetate molecules, two coordinated methanol molecules and two crystalline methanol molecules, and finally, a three-dimensional supramolecular structure with infinite extension was formed. Interestingly, during the formation of the Co(II) complex, the ligand changed from half-Salamo-like to a symmetrical single Salamo-like ligand due to the bonding interactions of the molecules. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of HL1 and its Co(II) complex were also investigated. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Spectroscopic Properties, and Hirshfeld Surface Analysis of Diaqua [3,14-dimethyl-2,6,13,17 tetraazatricyclo(16.4.0.07,12)docosane]copper(II) Dibromide
Crystals 2019, 9(7), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9070336 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A newly prepared Cu(II) complex salt, Cu(L1)(H2O)2Br2, where L1 is 3,14-dimethyl-2,6,13,17-tetraazatricyclo(16.4.0.07,12) docosane, is characterized by elemental and crystallographic analyses. The Cu(II) center is coordinated by four nitrogen atoms of macrocyclic ligand and [...] Read more.
A newly prepared Cu(II) complex salt, Cu(L1)(H2O)2Br2, where L1 is 3,14-dimethyl-2,6,13,17-tetraazatricyclo(16.4.0.07,12) docosane, is characterized by elemental and crystallographic analyses. The Cu(II) center is coordinated by four nitrogen atoms of macrocyclic ligand and the axial position by two water molecules. The macrocyclic ligand adopts an optimally stable trans-III conformation with normal Cu–N bond lengths of 2.018 (3) and 2.049 (3) Å and long axial Cu1–O1W length of 2.632 (3) Å due to the Jahn–Teller effect. The complex is stabilized by hydrogen bonds formed between the O atoms of water molecules and bromide anions. The bromide anion is connected to the neighboring complex cations and water molecules through N–H···Br and O–H···Br hydrogen bonds, respectively. The g-factors obtained from the electron spin resonance spectrum show the typical trend of g > g > 2.0023, which is in a good accordance to the dx2-y2 ground state. It reveals a coordination sphere of tetragonal symmetry for the Cu(II) ion. The infrared and electronic absorption spectral properties of the complex are also discussed. Hirshfeld surface analysis represents that the H···H, H···Br/Br···H and H···O/O···H contacts are the major molecular interactions in the prepared complex. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Supramolecular Assemblies in Pb(II) Complexes with Hydrazido-Based Ligands
Crystals 2019, 9(6), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9060323 - 25 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Herein, we describe the synthesis and single crystal X-ray diffraction characterization of several Pb(II) complexes using Schiff base hydrazido-based ligands and different counterions (NO3, I and ClO4). In the three complexes reported in this work, the lead(II) [...] Read more.
Herein, we describe the synthesis and single crystal X-ray diffraction characterization of several Pb(II) complexes using Schiff base hydrazido-based ligands and different counterions (NO3, I and ClO4). In the three complexes reported in this work, the lead(II) metal exhibits a high coordination number (n > 8) and thus it is apparently not involved in tetrel bonding interactions. Moreover, the aromatic ligands participate in noncovalent interactions that play an important role in the formation of several supramolecular assemblies in the solid state of the three Pb(II) complexes. These assemblies have been analyzed by means of Hirshfeld surface analysis and DFT calculations. Full article
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