Special Issue "Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Alloys"

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Inorganic Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Marek Sroka
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Politechnika Slaska w Gliwicach, Gliwice, Poland
Interests: steels; alloys; creep; residual life; mechanical properties; welded joints
Prof. Dr. Grzegorz Golański
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Politechnika Czestochowska, Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: cast alloys; alloys; mechanical properties; heat treatment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The crucial stage when designing constructions and appliances is the choice of a proper grade of engineering material with the required functional properties. Currently, engineers can choose from four basic groups of engineering materials, including: Metals and their alloys, ceramics, polymers, and composites. A set of specific mechanical and physical properties decides on the common use of metals and alloys as materials for construction, tools, or specific purposes. The deciding factor is also the easiness of forming with the use of casting methods, cold and hot working, as well as the possibility of joining metal elements by welding, pressure welding, soldering, gluing, etc. and the affordable price. Mechanical properties of alloys are determined by the type of the metal microstructure, characterized by the chemical composition and the crystalline structure of phases, the size and shape of grains of the particular phases and their mutual distribution, the extent of crystal lattice defects, and the way of spacial distribution of the defects. The microstructure of alloys is shaped through building a proper chemical composition and selecting the right conditions of the applied heat, thermochemical or plastic treatment.

We invite researchers to submit papers related to alloys (engineering materials) to discuss potential materials, the method of improvement of strength and cyclic properties of alloys, the stability of microstructures, the possible application of new (or improved) alloys, and the use of treatment for alloys improvement.

Dr. Marek Sroka
Prof. Dr. Grzegorz Golański
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Alloys
  • Chemical composition
  • Microstructure
  • Mechanical properties
  • Treatment

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Microstructural Stability and Softening Resistance of a Novel Hot-Work Die Steel
Crystals 2020, 10(4), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10040238 - 25 Mar 2020
Abstract
A novel hot-work die steel, named 5Cr5Mo2, was designed to obtain superior thermal stability. The proposed alloy is evaluated in terms of its hardness, microstructure, and tempering kinetics. Compared with the commonly used H13 steel, the softening resistance of the designed steel is [...] Read more.
A novel hot-work die steel, named 5Cr5Mo2, was designed to obtain superior thermal stability. The proposed alloy is evaluated in terms of its hardness, microstructure, and tempering kinetics. Compared with the commonly used H13 steel, the softening resistance of the designed steel is superior. Based on SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, a higher abundance of fine molybdenum carbides precipitate in 5Cr5Mo2 steel. Strikingly, the coarseness rate of the carbides is also relatively low during the tempering treatment. Moreover, owing to their pinning effect on dislocation slip, the dislocation density of the 5Cr5Mo2 steel decreases more slowly than that of the H13 steel. Furthermore, a mathematical softening model was successfully deduced and verified by analyzing the tempering kinetics. This model can be used to predict the hardness evolution of the die steels during the service period at high temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Alloys)
Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Lath Martensite Microstructures on the Strength of Medium-Carbon Low-Alloy Steel
Crystals 2020, 10(3), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10030232 - 23 Mar 2020
Abstract
Different austenitizing temperatures were used to obtain medium-carbon low-alloy (MCLA) martensitic steels with different lath martensite microstructures. The hierarchical microstructures of lath martensite were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that with [...] Read more.
Different austenitizing temperatures were used to obtain medium-carbon low-alloy (MCLA) martensitic steels with different lath martensite microstructures. The hierarchical microstructures of lath martensite were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that with increasing the austenitizing temperature, the prior austenite grain size and block size increased, while the lath width decreased. Further, the yield strength and tensile strength increased due to the enhancement of the grain boundary strengthening. The fitting results reveal that only the relationship between lath width and strength followed the Hall–Petch formula of. Hence, we propose that lath width acts as the effective grain size (EGS) of strength in MCLA steel. In addition, the carbon content had a significant effect on the EGS of martensitic strength. In steels with lower carbon content, block size acted as the EGS, while, in steels with higher carbon content, the EGS changed to lath width. The effect of the Cottrell atmosphere around boundaries may be responsible for this change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of the Crystal Structure and Wear Resistance of Co-Based Alloys with Low Carbon Content Manufactured by Selective Laser Sintering and Powder Injection Molding
Crystals 2020, 10(3), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10030197 - 13 Mar 2020
Abstract
Cobalt alloys are widely used in biomedicine, implantology, and dentistry due to their high corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. The high carbon improves the wear properties, but causes fragility and dangerous cracking of elements during use. The aim of the present work [...] Read more.
Cobalt alloys are widely used in biomedicine, implantology, and dentistry due to their high corrosion resistance and good mechanical properties. The high carbon improves the wear properties, but causes fragility and dangerous cracking of elements during use. The aim of the present work was to analyze and compare the structure and wear resistance of Co-based alloy samples with low carbon content, produced by Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Powder Injection Molding (PIM). Structure characterization, mainly with the use of transmission electron microscopy, was applied to investigate the differences in tribological properties. The better resistance to abrasive wear for SLS was explained by the presence of a hard, intermetallic phase, present as precipitates limited in size and evenly distributed in the cobalt matrix. The second factor was the structure of the cobalt matrix, with dominant content of the hexagonal phase. By combining the characteristic features of the matrix and the reinforcing phase, the analyzed material gains an additional advantage, namely a higher resistance to abrasive wear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Alloys)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of ECAP on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Rolled Mg-2Y-0.6Nd-0.6Zr Magnesium Alloy
Crystals 2019, 9(11), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9110586 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
A fine-grained Mg-2Y-0.6Nd-0.6Zr alloy was processed by bar-rolling and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). The effect of ECAP on the microstructure and mechanical properties of rolled Mg-2Y-0.6Nd-0.6Zr alloy was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction and a room temperature tensile [...] Read more.
A fine-grained Mg-2Y-0.6Nd-0.6Zr alloy was processed by bar-rolling and equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP). The effect of ECAP on the microstructure and mechanical properties of rolled Mg-2Y-0.6Nd-0.6Zr alloy was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron backscattered diffraction and a room temperature tensile test. The results show that the Mg-2Y-0.6Nd-0.6Zr alloy obtained high strength and poor plasticity after rolling. As the number of ECAP passes increased, the grain size of the alloy gradually reduced and the texture of the basal plane gradually weakened. The ultimate tensile strength of the alloy first increased and then decreased, the yield strength gradually decreased, and the plasticity continuously increased. After four passes of ECAP, the average grain size decreased from 11.2 µm to 1.87 µm, and the alloy obtained excellent comprehensive mechanical properties. Its strength was slightly reduced compared to the as-rolled alloy, but the plasticity was greatly increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Alloys)
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