A Cu-0.43Mg (wt.%) alloy was processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) up to eight passes via a processing route (Bc). The hardness distribution on the longitudinal and transverse sections was collected and the microstructure in the central and bottom regions on the longitudinal section was examined. The result showed that the hardness was improved significantly at the initial stage of the ECAP process, and the lower hardness region appeared at the area nearby the bottom surface. With the number of ECAP passes, the hardness gently increased and finally became saturated. The inhomogeneity of the hardness distribution along the normal direction gradually weakened and finally disappeared. The shear microstructure in the central region was different from that in the bottom region after one ECAP pass, and they became similar to each other after two ECAP passes, except the rotation angle of the elongated grains. With the further increasing ECAP passes, there was no obvious microstructure difference between the central and bottom regions. The inhomogeneities of the hardness and the microstructure along the normal direction in the alloy after one ECAP passes should be attributed to the non-zero outer arc of curvature of the ECAP die and the friction between the bottom surface of the billets and the ECAP die walls. The yield strength of the alloy increased from 124 MPa before the ECAP process to 555 MPa after eight ECAP passes. The improvement of yield strengths of the ECAPed Cu-Mg alloy should be mainly attributed to the dislocation strengthening and the grain boundary strengthening.
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