Crystalline Micro- and Nano-Materials for Medical and Other Biochemical Applications

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomolecular Crystals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 August 2021) | Viewed by 21036

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Xiangya School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, 932 Lushan S Rd, Yuelu District, Changsha, Hunan, China
Interests: pharmaceutical engineering; pharmaceutical excipients; crystallization; functional foods; spray drying; micro- and nano-encapsulation

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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacy, Xiangya School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha 410017, China
Interests: silver nanoparticle; microfluidics; drug delivery system

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Guest Editor
School of Forensic Medicine, South Medical University, Shatai Road 1838, Baiyun, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China
Interests: forensic toxicological analysis; drug detection; SERS-based immunochromatographic assay; electrochemical biosensor development; photocatalytic degradation; functional carbon based nanomaterials

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Guest Editor
Xiangya School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, 932 Lushan S Rd, Yuelu District, Changsha, Hunan, China
Interests: new drug development; nucleic acid aptamers; disease diagnosis; transdermal drug delivery; multifunctional nanocarriers; pathological mechanism of diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Crystalline micro- and nano-materials based on organic and inorganic molecules are a rapidly progressing field of medical and other biochemical applications. In focus are solids with functional biochemical properties which can be used in medical, pharmaceutical, environmental, microbial, energy and many other biochemical applications. Although synthesis of crystalline micro- and nano-materials have been largely carried out in recent years; however, the applications of these materials still face problems in different fields in practice.

With the topic of crystalline micro- and nano-materials for medical and other biochemical applications, it is important to focus more on the application aspects in the near future for the discipline development. First of all, the fundamental theories of the synthesis methods need to be revealed to control the crystallization process and other engineering aspects. With the well-designed materials, studies at molecular, cellular and higher levels need to be performed to access the materials in medical and other biomedical applications. In vivo and in vitro studies and higher-levels clinical studies are required for these materials to be used on the market. Mathematical modelling may be performed to improve the technology. Besides, ethical research and social-science studies assist the development of these crystalline micro- and nano-materials for medical and other biochemical applications.

Prof. Dr. Tan Songwen
Prof. Dr. Chen Chuanpin
Prof. Dr. Chen Xuncai
Prof. Dr. Zhou Wenhu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Synthesis of novel materials
  • Theoretical studies
  • Biochemical analysis techniques
  • Medical and pharmaceutical applications
  • Other biochemical applications
  • Toxicology, symptoms and adverse reactions
  • Ethical research and social-science studies

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 151 KiB  
Editorial
Crystalline Micro- and Nano-Materials for Medical and Other Biochemical Applications
by Songwen Tan, Chuanpin Chen, Xuncai Chen and Wenhu Zhou
Crystals 2021, 11(11), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11111361 - 8 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1217
Abstract
The Special Issue on “Crystalline Micro- and Nano-Materials for Medical and Other Biochemical Applications” is a collection of seven original articles (including three research papers and four review papers) dedicated to theoretical and experimental research work that provides new insights and practical findings [...] Read more.
The Special Issue on “Crystalline Micro- and Nano-Materials for Medical and Other Biochemical Applications” is a collection of seven original articles (including three research papers and four review papers) dedicated to theoretical and experimental research work that provides new insights and practical findings in the field of crystal-related biomedicine [...] Full article

Research

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13 pages, 3075 KiB  
Article
Dopamine-Grafted Hyaluronic Acid Coated Hyperbranched Poly(β-Amino Esters)/DNA Nano-Complexes for Enhanced Gene Delivery and Biosafety
by Man Guo, Yingcai Meng, Xiaoqun Qin and Wenhu Zhou
Crystals 2021, 11(4), 347; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11040347 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2901 | Correction
Abstract
Gene therapy has attracted particular attention for the treatment of various genetic diseases, and the development of gene delivery vectors is of utmost importance for in vivo applications of gene drugs. Various cationic polymers with high nucleic acid loading and intracellular transfection efficiency [...] Read more.
Gene therapy has attracted particular attention for the treatment of various genetic diseases, and the development of gene delivery vectors is of utmost importance for in vivo applications of gene drugs. Various cationic polymers with high nucleic acid loading and intracellular transfection efficiency have been reported, however, their biological applications are limited by potential toxicity. Surface modification is a robust solution to detoxify the cationic vectors, but this can inevitably weaken the transfection efficiency. To address this dilemma, we reported the ability of a dopamine (DA)-grafted hyaluronic acid (HA) to modify gene vectors for enhanced gene delivery and biosafety. The nano-vector was formed by using branched poly(β-amino esters) (PAEs), and surface coating with HA-DA to form a core-shell nano-structure via electrostatic attraction. Upon HA-DA modification, the biosafety of the gene delivery vehicle was improved, as demonstrated by the cell cytotoxicity assay and hemolysis test. Notably, the nano-system displayed a DA-dependent transfection efficiency, in which a higher DA grafting degree resulted in better efficacy. This can be explained by the adhesive nature of DA, facilitating cell membrane interaction, as well as DA receptor mediated active targeting. At the optimal DA grafting ratio, the nano-system achieved a transfection efficiency even better than that of commonly used polyethylenimine (PEI) vectors. Together with its excellent biocompatibility, the vector presented here holds great promise for gene delivery applications. Full article
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14 pages, 3529 KiB  
Article
Hyaluronic Acid-Coated MTX-PEI Nanoparticles for Targeted Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapy
by Shenghui Zhong, Peng Liu, Jinsong Ding and Wenhu Zhou
Crystals 2021, 11(4), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11040321 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3133
Abstract
Methotrexate (MTX) is an anchor drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, long-term and high-dose usage of MTX for patients can cause many side effects and toxic reactions. To address these difficulties, selectively delivering MTX to the inflammatory site of a [...] Read more.
Methotrexate (MTX) is an anchor drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, long-term and high-dose usage of MTX for patients can cause many side effects and toxic reactions. To address these difficulties, selectively delivering MTX to the inflammatory site of a joint is promising in the treatment of RA. In this study, we prepared MTX-PEI@HA nanoparticles (NPs), composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) as the hydrophilic negative electrical shell, and MTX-linked branched polyethyleneimine (MTX-PEI) NPs as the core. MTX-PEI@HA NPs were prepared in the water phase by a one-pot method. The polymeric NPs were selectively internalized via CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis in the activated macrophages. In the in vivo mice mode study, treatment with MTX-PEI@HA NPs mitigated inflammatory arthritis with notable safety at a high dose of MTX. We highlight the distinct advantages of aqueous-synthesized NPs coated with HA for arthritis-selective targeted delivery, thus verifying MTX-PEI@HA NPs as a promising MTX-based nanoplatform for treatment of RA. Full article
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Review

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13 pages, 962 KiB  
Review
A Literature Review on High-Performance Photocatalysts for Sustainable Cancer Therapy
by Hanxi Yi and Zeneng Cheng
Crystals 2021, 11(10), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11101241 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2552
Abstract
Since cancer is a serious threat to public health worldwide, the development of novel methods and materials for treating cancer rapidly and thoroughly is of great significance. This review summarizes the mechanism and application of photocatalytic materials used to kill cancer cells. The [...] Read more.
Since cancer is a serious threat to public health worldwide, the development of novel methods and materials for treating cancer rapidly and thoroughly is of great significance. This review summarizes the mechanism and application of photocatalytic materials used to kill cancer cells. The photosensitivity and toxicological properties of several common photcatalysts used in anti-cancer treatment are discussed in detail. The ideal photocatalyst must possess the following characteristics: a highly stable production of active oxygen species and high selectivity to cancer cells without causing any damage to healthy tissues. This work concluded the existing photocatalytic materials used to treat cancer, as well as the current challenges in the application of cancer therapy. We aim to provide a basis for the development of new photocatalytic anti-cancer materials with high stability and selectivity while maintaining high photodynamic reaction performance. Full article
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14 pages, 764 KiB  
Review
A Review of Pharmaceutical Nano-Cocrystals: A Novel Strategy to Improve the Chemical and Physical Properties for Poorly Soluble Drugs
by Jianbing Tan, Jianhao Liu and Liling Ran
Crystals 2021, 11(5), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11050463 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4216
Abstract
Nowadays, many commercial drugs have poor solubility and bioavailability. Cocrystals are formulated to modulate active pharmaceutical ingredients’ properties with improved solubility, dissolution, and bioavailability compared to their pristine individual components in the pharmaceutical industry. Nano-cocrystals, crystals in the nano range, can further enhance [...] Read more.
Nowadays, many commercial drugs have poor solubility and bioavailability. Cocrystals are formulated to modulate active pharmaceutical ingredients’ properties with improved solubility, dissolution, and bioavailability compared to their pristine individual components in the pharmaceutical industry. Nano-cocrystals, crystals in the nano range, can further enhance these properties because of not only the cocrystal structure, but also the large surface to volume ratio of nanocrystals. Even though there are many studies on cocrystals, the research of pharmaceutical nano-cocrystals is still in the initial stage. Thus, it is necessary to conduct a systematic study on pharmaceutical nano-cocrystals. In this review, the possible preparation approaches of nano-cocrystals have been reported. To have a comprehensive understanding of nano-cocrystals, some analytical techniques and characterizations will be discussed in detail. In addition, the feasible therapeutic application of nano-cocrystals will be presented. This work is expected to provide guidance to develop new nano-cocrystals with commercial value in the pharmaceutical industry. Full article
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12 pages, 943 KiB  
Review
Application of Reactive Oxygen Species-Based Nanomaterials in Dentistry: A Review
by Fenglin Liu, Tingting Hong, Jingxian Xie, Xuehui Zhan and Yuehong Wang
Crystals 2021, 11(3), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030266 - 8 Mar 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2633
Abstract
Maintenance of dental health has attracted attention of researchers at present. Various materials have been constructed and applied for curing different dental diseases, although limitation of biocompatibility and safety is still a big challenge. To overcome these limitations, nanomaterials with unique properties are [...] Read more.
Maintenance of dental health has attracted attention of researchers at present. Various materials have been constructed and applied for curing different dental diseases, although limitation of biocompatibility and safety is still a big challenge. To overcome these limitations, nanomaterials with unique properties are incorporated into various dental treatment materials used in dental applications, including endodontic treatment, periodontal treatment, implant treatment, oral surgery, and restorative treatment, etc. Especially, reactive oxygen species-based nanomaterials equipped with nanoscale properties and reactive oxygen activities can be used as sterilization agents in dentistry, along with being used as good fillers in the dental field. This review concludes the common reactive oxygen species (ROS) nanomaterials and reviews the utilization of ROS in dentistry, highlighting the potential application and safety in clinical treatment. The future prospect will also be proposed to conduct the clinic dental cure. Full article
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16 pages, 634 KiB  
Review
LncRNA MALAT1: A Potential Fibrosis Biomarker and Therapeutic Target
by Yijie Li, Fenglin Liu, Yunzhou Cai, Yanqing Yang and Yuehong Wang
Crystals 2021, 11(3), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11030249 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3186
Abstract
Due to the lack of an effective method for the treatment of fibrosis, there are numerous patients suffering from the effects of fibrosis. Severe fibrosis can cause dysfunction of relevant organs characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript [...] Read more.
Due to the lack of an effective method for the treatment of fibrosis, there are numerous patients suffering from the effects of fibrosis. Severe fibrosis can cause dysfunction of relevant organs characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long non-coding RNA that is widely expressed and highly conserved in human tissues. It can regulate gene expression at various molecular levels, involved in the fibrosis of the liver, heart, lung, and kidney. In this review, we first described the pathogenesis by which MALAT1 promotes fibrosis. Furthermore, we summarized current studies of MALAT1 in the fibrosis of various organs. Hope this review will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of fibrosis and the potential of MALAT1 as a novel therapeutic target for fibrosis. Full article
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