Advanced Coating Material for Heritage Preservation

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Corrosion, Wear and Erosion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (12 October 2023) | Viewed by 18018

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Special Issue Editors

Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Interests: protection of cultural relics; ancient material detection; microbial control in cultural heritage
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Centre for the Protection of Cultural Property, School of Humanities, Ningbo University of Finance & Economics, Ningbo 315175, China
Interests: protection of cultural relics; ancient buildings; inorganic cementitious materials; archaeology of science and technology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nowadays, influenced by natural and human factors, a large number of immovable cultural heritage sites are being destroyed. One of the keys to the success of the protection of immovable cultural relics is the development of coating materials and technologies. However, immovable cultural relics are composed of a variety of materials, and thus face different preservation environments and issues. Much evidence has proved that proper coating materials and techniques can protect immovable cultural relics; on the other hand, the use of the wrong materials would cause more serious damage. This requires researchers to design different coating materials and develop appropriate coating technology according to the actual situation. Towards this goal, we are assembling a Special Issue of Coatings to encourage researchers and to provide them with a platform with which they can publish their novel studies.

The theme of this Special Issue broadly includes (but is not limited to):

  • Materials for use in the reinforcement of stone cultural relics;
  • Fire-retardant coatings for wood cultural relics;
  • Coating technology in heritage conservation;
  • Multi-layer coating for cultural relics;
  • Interactions between coatings and cultural relics;
  • Degradation processes of coating materials in cultural relics;
  • Novel coating and its characterizations for cultural relics.
  • Sacrificial coating on the surface of cultural relics
  • Study on weather resistance of cultural relics coating

Dr. Yulan Hu
Dr. Shiqiang Fang
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • immovable cultural heritage
  • coating techniques
  • fire-proof coating
  • anti-weathering coating
  • multi-layer
  • interactions
  • degradation
  • weather resistance

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 9461 KiB  
Communication
Systematic Investigation into Evolution of Materials and Techniques Used in Lacquer Lian from the Warring States Period to the Yuan Dynasty
by Hao Wu, Yang Zhao, Beisong Fang and Jingren Dong
Coatings 2023, 13(10), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13101750 - 10 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1013
Abstract
In order to investigate the evolution of Chinese lacquering techniques, seven pieces of lacquer Lian from the Warring States Period to the Yuan Dynasty (475 BC–1368 AD) were analyzed by means of cross-section observation, Raman spectroscopy (RS), and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the evolution of Chinese lacquering techniques, seven pieces of lacquer Lian from the Warring States Period to the Yuan Dynasty (475 BC–1368 AD) were analyzed by means of cross-section observation, Raman spectroscopy (RS), and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (Py-GC/MS). The results revealed that the lacquer Lian consisted of a three-layer structure, encompassing a pigment layer on the surface, an undercoat layer in the middle, and a ground layer. The red mineral pigment utilized was cinnabar, while a combination of Chinese lacquer and drying oil served as the primary organic material. Although lacquering techniques had undergone minimal changes from the Warring States Period to the Yuan Dynasty, the species of drying oil had changed, based on the fact that boiled tung oil was found in the ground layer of lacquerware from the Song Dynasty and the Yuan Dynasty. The present research provides direct evidence for the inheritance and development of Chinese lacquer technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating Material for Heritage Preservation)
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16 pages, 4597 KiB  
Article
Application of Starch Based Coatings as a Sustainable Solution to Preserve and Decipher the Charred Documents
by Sonali Kesarwani, Divya Bajpai Tripathy and Suneet Kumar
Coatings 2023, 13(9), 1521; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13091521 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Fire can be one of the most destructive elements to cause devastation. Fire can completely or partly destroy any crucial and invaluable documents, such as banknotes, books, affidavits, etc., in a couple of minutes. Moreover, the documents can also be damaged by heat, [...] Read more.
Fire can be one of the most destructive elements to cause devastation. Fire can completely or partly destroy any crucial and invaluable documents, such as banknotes, books, affidavits, etc., in a couple of minutes. Moreover, the documents can also be damaged by heat, smoke, soot, and water during an accident. The burnt documents become fragile, losing their identity, which may have some evidentiary value related to the incident. Therefore, there is a strong need for processing to procure, preserve, and decipher, i.e., to restore the texts written on them. Hence, the present research focuses on developing a new method using natural polysaccharides, i.e., starch, to preserve and decipher the contents of charred documents. The most suitable concentration of starch analog was found to be 6% microwaved at 80 °C for about 10 min. As soon as the charred documents were coated with 6% starch analog, the majority of the invisible texts became visible to the naked eye in a second. Moreover, the application of a synthesized analog of polysaccharide on fragile charred documents provided an appreciable increase in strength by almost 0.1 kg/cm2 for the coated charred documents of each paper type compared to that of non-coated ones and made them stabilized. This research also involves the use of easy and advanced handwriting recognition techniques (HCR) using an easily accessible, free platform, G-lens, that successfully recognized the majority of texts deciphered using 6% starch analog and converted them from captured images to a readable and copyable text format. Furthermore, the document visualization under VSC also gave a promising result by enhancing and deciphering the non-visible and less visible texts under flood light and white spot light at 715 and 695 long passes. Hence, this study offers an environmentally friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable approach of using a natural polysaccharide instead of synthetic polymers for the preservation and decipherment of charred documents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating Material for Heritage Preservation)
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10 pages, 4000 KiB  
Article
Cellulose-Graphene Bifunctional Paper Conservation Materials: For Reinforcement and UV Aging Protection
by Peng Tian, Meirong Shi, Jingmin Hou and Peng Fu
Coatings 2023, 13(2), 443; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13020443 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1413
Abstract
Paper artifacts have unique cultural and historical values. However, over time, many paper artifacts appear with disease characteristics such as embrittlement and photoaging, losing the most fundamental function of the literature archive. The reinforcement handling of degraded paper artifacts is, therefore, a necessary [...] Read more.
Paper artifacts have unique cultural and historical values. However, over time, many paper artifacts appear with disease characteristics such as embrittlement and photoaging, losing the most fundamental function of the literature archive. The reinforcement handling of degraded paper artifacts is, therefore, a necessary measure to extend their service life, the key to which lies in the reinforcement and prevention of photoaging. This paper intended to use graphene oxide (GO) as a UV protective agent, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a reinforcement, and polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a modifier. In this work, the amino-modified graphene oxide carboxymethyl cellulose composite (CMC-aGO) was prepared by chemical modification, which was used as bifunctional paper protection material with anti-ultraviolet and reinforcement. It showed excellent performance in both tensile strength testing and UV resistance testing. The CMC-aGO raw material is low cost, colorless, transparent, simple to synthesize, convenient to operate, and is an excellent conservation material with dual functions of UV aging protection and paper reinforcement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating Material for Heritage Preservation)
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9 pages, 3360 KiB  
Article
One-Step Preparation of High Performance TiO2/CNT/CQD Nanocomposites Bactericidal Coating with Ultrasonic Radiation
by Jin Xiang, Shuchang Wang, Yuanxin Cao, Lining Fang, Wei Ke, Hui Guo, Baoyu Duan, Wenhe Yu, Liang Li and Zilong Zhao
Coatings 2023, 13(1), 145; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13010145 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1637
Abstract
As an environmental semiconductor material, TiO2 has important applications in the fields of environmental protection and water treatment. The preparation of P25 particles into nano-functional material films with a high specific surface area has always been a bottleneck limiting its large-scale application. [...] Read more.
As an environmental semiconductor material, TiO2 has important applications in the fields of environmental protection and water treatment. The preparation of P25 particles into nano-functional material films with a high specific surface area has always been a bottleneck limiting its large-scale application. In this paper, a one-step method of preparing TiO2 nanocomposites by doping carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon quantum dots (CQD) with tetrabutyltitanate and P25 TiO2 under ultrasonic radiation is proposed to synthesize a novel antifouling material, which both eliminates the bacterium of Escherichia coli and shows good photoelectric properties, indicating a great value for the industrial promotion of TiO2/CNT. This mesoporous composite exhibits a high specific surface area of 78.07 M2/g (BET) and a tested pore width range within 10–120 nm. The surface morphology of this composite is characterized by TEM and the microstructure is characterized through XRD. This preparation method can fabricate P25 particles into a nano-functional material film with a high specific surface area at a very low cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating Material for Heritage Preservation)
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17 pages, 5924 KiB  
Article
A Novel Protection Method for Carbonate Stone Artifacts with Gypsum Weathering Crusts
by Ruicong Lu, Lu He, Ting Li, Fuwei Yang, Yan Liu, Kun Zhang and Xinnan Chen
Coatings 2022, 12(11), 1793; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12111793 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
An innovative method using a methanol solution of barium hydroxide-urea as a protective agent was investigated for the conservation of stone artifacts with harmful gypsum weathering crusts. In this method, the methanol solution of barium hydroxide-urea and water were introduced into the gypsum [...] Read more.
An innovative method using a methanol solution of barium hydroxide-urea as a protective agent was investigated for the conservation of stone artifacts with harmful gypsum weathering crusts. In this method, the methanol solution of barium hydroxide-urea and water were introduced into the gypsum crust in sequence by surface spraying. By doing so, the harmful gypsum crust is directly converted into a barium sulfate—calcium carbonate composite protective layer. The properties of the composite layer were characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD, ATR-FTIR, IC, water solubility, wetting angle, color difference, open porosity, capillary water absorption, and surface hardness. The results of the morphological and composition characterization (SEM-EDX, XRD, ATR-FTIR) indicate that the added urea can promote the carbonization reaction effectively. In addition, the methanol solution of barium hydroxide-urea can penetrate deep into the gypsum crust. The results of the physical properties characterization denote that the water stability of the specimens was significantly increased after the protection treatment; an approximate ten-fold stronger water resistance ability was achieved. Meanwhile, the intrinsic physical properties of gypsum crust, such as pore structure and original appearance, could basically be maintained. The presented conservative method has high facility and controllability and satisfying conservation effect, which means it has potential in the conservation of surface weathering carbonate stone artifacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating Material for Heritage Preservation)
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10 pages, 2999 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Investigation of Sequential Application of Different Calcium Oxalate Solutions for Carbonate Rock Conservation
by Jianrui Zha, Yaoqi Gu, Shuya Wei, Huarui Han, Ankun Wang and Qinglin Ma
Coatings 2022, 12(10), 1412; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12101412 - 27 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1494
Abstract
Being inspired by nature, a series of experiments was carried out to deposit a calcium oxalate layer on the surface of the stone by the reaction between carbonate rock and oxalate salt. To increase the anti-dissolution properties of the calcium oxalate layer, the [...] Read more.
Being inspired by nature, a series of experiments was carried out to deposit a calcium oxalate layer on the surface of the stone by the reaction between carbonate rock and oxalate salt. To increase the anti-dissolution properties of the calcium oxalate layer, the use of mixed oxalate solution has been proposed in the literature by two main routes: (1) adding acid agent to ammonium oxalate, which has the advantage of changing the particle structure and reducing layer porosity, and (2) using neutral methyl oxalate solution, which has the advantage of surface coverage due to slowly hydrolysis. In this study, we investigated the sequential application of ammonium oxalate, methyl oxalate, neutral mixed, and calcium acetate acid mixed solution. With this method, calcium carbonate and calcium oxalate solution can react inside the stone to reinforce it. The protective film’s coverage area can then be increased using dimethyl oxalate neutral mixed solution, and the crystal morphology can be modified with calcium oxalate acid mixed solution. The anti-dissolution properties of the coating were investigated using both a custom-designed apparatus and a selective outdoor environment. The coating displayed good acid resistance properties at pH 2–4. After one year of exposure, the coating is firmly bonded with the stone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating Material for Heritage Preservation)
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15 pages, 3596 KiB  
Article
A Durable Nano-SiO2-TiO2/Dodecyltrimethoxysilane Superhydrophobic Coating for Stone Protection
by Meiman Peng, Liqin Wang, Lang Guo, Jinyi Guo, Liping Zheng, Fuwei Yang, Zhuang Ma and Xing Zhao
Coatings 2022, 12(10), 1397; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12101397 - 25 Sep 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2253
Abstract
Water can trigger freeze–thaw cycles, acid rain corrosion, and microbial colonisation, all of which destroy stone. Water is one of the most influential factors in the destruction of outdoor stone heritage. Therefore, materials with excellent hydrophobic properties and durability are urgently required to [...] Read more.
Water can trigger freeze–thaw cycles, acid rain corrosion, and microbial colonisation, all of which destroy stone. Water is one of the most influential factors in the destruction of outdoor stone heritage. Therefore, materials with excellent hydrophobic properties and durability are urgently required to effectively retard long-term stone weathering. In this study, two nanoparticles, TiO2 and SiO2, were used to modify dodecyltrimethoxysilane (DTMS), a waterproof coating commonly used for stone heritage protection, to fabricate nanocomposite superhydrophobic coatings. The micromorphology, water repellence (water contact angle and capillary water absorption), suitability to protect stone heritage (color change and water vapor permeability), and durability (thermal, light, and chemical stability) of DTMS and nanocomposite coatings were evaluated. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images revealed that adding 0.5% (w/w) SiO2 produced nanoscale roughness on the sandstone surface, leading to superhydrophobicity. The results of ultraviolet -visible (UV–Vis) spectrophotometer showed that adding 0.01% TiO2 shielded more than 90% of UV light but accelerated the decrease in the contact angle under UVA irradiation. The addition of SiO2 was able to avoid the detrimental effect of TiO2 under UV light. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that both SiO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles improved the thermal stability of the coatings. In particular, the fabricated nanocomposite coating, SiO2 and TiO2 co-modified DTMS, had excellent water repellence, low color change and outstanding durability, and retained about 85% of the water vapor permeability of the stone, showing promise for stone protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating Material for Heritage Preservation)
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27 pages, 4533 KiB  
Article
Hybrid Tri-Cure Organo-Silicon Coatings for Monument Preservation
by Cory B. Sims, Chamika U. Lenora and Joseph C. Furgal
Coatings 2022, 12(8), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12081098 - 2 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2918
Abstract
A coating system integrating three distinct chemistries was developed to protect materials used in monuments and construction. Initial curing is achieved using a UV-initiated thiol-ene reaction to form a non-impressionable/non-sticky surface. Second, amine/epoxy reactions form a firm surface adhesion and give mechanical strength [...] Read more.
A coating system integrating three distinct chemistries was developed to protect materials used in monuments and construction. Initial curing is achieved using a UV-initiated thiol-ene reaction to form a non-impressionable/non-sticky surface. Second, amine/epoxy reactions form a firm surface adhesion and give mechanical strength through consolidation. Third, alkoxysilane sol-gel curing integrates the siloxane network while adding thermal stability, hydrophobicity, and a hardened surface. The final design utilizes a photoacid generator to increase the reaction speed of the second and third curing steps. The coating can be applied by spray, dip, or wipe on methods and exhibits a rapid non-impressionable surface (as fast as 10 min) that resists graffiti and environmental conditions, and is used and stored as a single-component system with a pot life exceeding six months. A series of experiments were used to determine the coating properties and durability, including field testing and accelerated weathering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating Material for Heritage Preservation)
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11 pages, 5459 KiB  
Article
Consolidation of Fragile Oracle Bones Using Nano Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate as a Protectant
by Yan Liu, Ruicong Lu, Lu He, Ximan Wang, Lu Wang, Xinyan Lv, Kun Zhang and Fuwei Yang
Coatings 2022, 12(6), 860; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings12060860 - 18 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1954
Abstract
Herein, a nano calcium sulfate hemihydrate suspension in an alcohol solvent was prepared and explored as a novel protectant for fragile oracle bones. The consolidation method involved first introducing the suspension and then adding water into the bones. Through this method, cohesive calcium [...] Read more.
Herein, a nano calcium sulfate hemihydrate suspension in an alcohol solvent was prepared and explored as a novel protectant for fragile oracle bones. The consolidation method involved first introducing the suspension and then adding water into the bones. Through this method, cohesive calcium sulfate dihydrate formed in the bones and can act as a reinforcing material. The protective effect was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), hardness, porosity, and color difference determination. The results showed that such consolidation increased the strength of the bone samples significantly, and only slightly changed the appearance and porosity of the bone samples, indicating a good prospect for applying nano calcium sulfate hemihydrate in the conservation of indoor fragile bone relics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating Material for Heritage Preservation)
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Review

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19 pages, 972 KiB  
Review
Comparison and Research Progress of Protein Detection Technology for Cultural Relic Materials
by Qian Wu, Bingjian Zhang and Yulan Hu
Coatings 2023, 13(8), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings13081319 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
The analysis of historical materials is an essential component of cultural heritage conservation. Protein was one of the most important and pervasive organic substances in ancient human societies. Through the qualitative and quantitative examination of protein-based materials, it is possible to clarify their [...] Read more.
The analysis of historical materials is an essential component of cultural heritage conservation. Protein was one of the most important and pervasive organic substances in ancient human societies. Through the qualitative and quantitative examination of protein-based materials, it is possible to clarify their source and functions of substances in cultural heritages, investigate the manufacturing technology of cultural heritage, and identify their deterioration mechanism. On the basis of these analyses, corresponding measurements are therefore feasible. Currently, mass spectrometry, chromatography, spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic, proteomics, and immunoassay are used to analyse protein materials. Proteomics techniques and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technology are two of the most common methods for detecting ancient proteins. This article discusses the evolution of protein component detection in ancient materials, as well as the implementation of proteomics and ELISA techniques for the analysis of proteins. In addition, the characteristics of these two techniques were contrasted in order to propose the most recent analytical techniques and the direction of future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Coating Material for Heritage Preservation)
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