Special Issue "Advances in Flexible Films and Coatings"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Marta Marszalek
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow, Poland
Dr. Michał Kupiński
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Magnetic Materials and Nanostructures, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow, Poland
Interests: nanopatterned magnetic layers; magnetism of nanostructures; thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy; unconventional patterning methods
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Yevhen Zabila
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Department of Materials Science, Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow, Poland

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Special Issue will concern the fabrication, properties, and applications of flexible thin films, coatings, and membranes. For example, rapidly developing printable electronics and sensorics opens new fields and creates challenges that stimulate the search for new materials with novel properties. In particular, it is necessary to find the analogs of conventional electronic elements, circuits, and devices. Therefore, advanced fabrication, patterning and functionalization methods are demanded for future progress in the field of flexible materials.

The Special Issue will cover materials with high performance during multiple elastic deformation. The relations between stress and strain and mechanical, electrical, thermal, and magnetic properties are also welcome. The examples of applications, such as wearable electronic devices and sensors, can be considered.

In particular, the topics of interest include, but are not limited to :

  • Flexible thin films, composites and polymers;
  • Free standing membranes;
  • Advanced fabrication, patterning and functionalization techniques;
  • Bendable and strechable coatings;
  • Flexible electronics and sensorics;
  • Printable electronics;
  • Membranes for medical and environmental applications.

Prof. Dr. Marta Marszałek
Dr. Michał Kupiński
Dr. Yevhen Zabila
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Article
Magnetotransport Properties of Semi-Metallic Bismuth Thin Films for Flexible Sensor Applications
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020175 - 02 Feb 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
In this paper we describe characterization of semi-metallic bismuth thin films. We prepared bismuth thin films by a deposition of bismuth through thermal evaporation onto flexible Kapton substrates and annealing at temperatures close to the melting point of Bi. We studied the morphology [...] Read more.
In this paper we describe characterization of semi-metallic bismuth thin films. We prepared bismuth thin films by a deposition of bismuth through thermal evaporation onto flexible Kapton substrates and annealing at temperatures close to the melting point of Bi. We studied the morphology and transport properties of these films. Immediately after the deposition we observed competition between vanishing of the grain boundaries and elastic strain energy, which stabilized at larger thicknesses leading to the grain size of 140 nm. This effect was accompanied by a continuous decrease of resistivity which, however, was larger than for the bulk bismuth. The film annealing at temperatures close to the melting point of Bi led to a 300% increase of magnetoresistance at room temperature and in the magnetic field of 7 T. The in situ resistance measurements allowed us to determine the permissible temperature at which the annealing does not cause the loss of film continuity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flexible Films and Coatings)
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Article
Application of Polyaniline for Flexible Semiconductors
Coatings 2021, 11(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11010049 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 695
Abstract
“In situ” polymerization method was used to develop PANI-PSSA /textile. Polyaniline doped with polystyrene sulfonic acid (PANI-PSSA) used as coatings for textiles were obtained by aqueous and emulsion route. The emulsion route uses chloroform as solvent. Polymerization has been achieved in one step [...] Read more.
“In situ” polymerization method was used to develop PANI-PSSA /textile. Polyaniline doped with polystyrene sulfonic acid (PANI-PSSA) used as coatings for textiles were obtained by aqueous and emulsion route. The emulsion route uses chloroform as solvent. Polymerization has been achieved in one step on the wool or polyamide textiles. For coated and uncoated textiles, dried at room temperature, were characterized structurally by Infrared Spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR), morphologically by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and electrically. The synthesis methods lead to differences in structure, morphology and properties of the coated polyamide and wool textiles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flexible Films and Coatings)
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Article
Graphene Synthesis by Inductively Heated Copper Foils: Reactor Design and Operation
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040305 - 25 Mar 2020
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
We report on the design of a reactor to grow graphene via inductively heating of copper foils by radio frequency (RF) magnetic fields. A nearly uniform magnetic field induced by Helmholtz-like coils penetrates the copper foil generating eddy currents. While the frequency of [...] Read more.
We report on the design of a reactor to grow graphene via inductively heating of copper foils by radio frequency (RF) magnetic fields. A nearly uniform magnetic field induced by Helmholtz-like coils penetrates the copper foil generating eddy currents. While the frequency of the current is being rapidly varied, the substrate temperature increases from room temperature to ~1050 °C in 60 s. This temperature is maintained under Ar/H2 flow to reduce the copper, and under Ar/H2/CH4 to nucleate and grow the graphene over the entire copper foil. After the power cut-off, the temperature decreases rapidly to room temperature, stopping graphene secondary nucleation. Good quality graphene was obtained and transferred onto silicon, and coated with a 300 nm layer of SiO2 by chemical etching of the copper foil. After synthesis, samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The design of the coils and the total power requirements for the graphene induction heating system were first estimated. Then, the effect of the process parameters on the temperature distribution in the copper foil was performed by solving the transient and steady-state coupled electromagnetic and thermal problem in the 2D domain. The quantitative effects of these process parameters were investigated, and the optimization analysis results are reported providing a root toward a scalable process for large-sized graphene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flexible Films and Coatings)
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Article
Recovery Behavior of Microstructured Thiol-Ene Shape-Memory Film
Coatings 2019, 9(4), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9040267 - 20 Apr 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
In this work, surface microstructurization was coupled with shape-memory polymer to generate reversibly tunable surface properties. A photopolymerizable thiol-ene composition comprising a mixture of pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP), 1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (TTT) and 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPA) was used to prepare microstructured thiol-ene shape-memory film via casting and [...] Read more.
In this work, surface microstructurization was coupled with shape-memory polymer to generate reversibly tunable surface properties. A photopolymerizable thiol-ene composition comprising a mixture of pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP), 1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (TTT) and 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPA) was used to prepare microstructured thiol-ene shape-memory film via casting and UV polymerization on the electron beam lithography fabricated arrays of 1 µm and 2 µm square pits. The mechanical deformation via compression and recovery of the surface microstructure were investigated. Results show that, after heat treatment of the deformed thiol-ene film, the recovery yields for microstructures were not worse than 90% ± 2% and 93% ± 2% for structures imprinted with 1 µm and 2 µm square pit micro imprint stamps. Additionally, heat treatment of deformed thiol-ene film resulted in the recovery of intense diffraction colors and laser diffraction patterns. This study opens up an avenue of incorporating microstructured shape-memory films for new products, e.g., optical security devices, superhydrophobic coatings, medical diagnostics and biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flexible Films and Coatings)
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Article
Power Generation in Slope-Type Thin-Film Thermoelectric Generators by the Simple Contact of a Heat Source
Coatings 2019, 9(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9020063 - 22 Jan 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1653 | Correction
Abstract
To conveniently generate electric energy for next-generation smart network monitoring systems, we propose the design and fabrication of slope-type thin-film thermoelectric generators by the simple contact of a heat source. N-type Bi2Te3 films and p-type Sb2Te3 films [...] Read more.
To conveniently generate electric energy for next-generation smart network monitoring systems, we propose the design and fabrication of slope-type thin-film thermoelectric generators by the simple contact of a heat source. N-type Bi2Te3 films and p-type Sb2Te3 films were formed on a stainless-steel substrate employing potentiostatic electrodeposition using a nitric acid-based bath, followed by a transfer process. In order to naturally induce a temperature difference (ΔT) between the ends of the generator, slope blocks made by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were prepared and then inserted between the generators and heat sources. The performance of the generators, the open circuit voltage (Voc), and the maximum output power (Pmax), were measured using PDMS slope angles as the temperature of the heat source was increased. The ΔT of the generators increased as the slope angle was increased. The generator with the highest slope angle (28°) exhibited a Voc of 7.2 mV and Pmax of 18.3 μW at ΔT of 15 K for a heat source temperature of 42 °C. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of slope-type thin-film thermoelectric generators, which can be fabricated with a low manufacturing cost. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flexible Films and Coatings)
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Article
Hygroexpansion and Surface Roughness Cause Defects and Increase the Electrical Resistivity of Physical Vapor Deposited Aluminum Coatings on Paper
Coatings 2019, 9(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9010033 - 08 Jan 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2037
Abstract
Aluminum coatings, which are applied by physical vapor deposition (PVD), have to be virtually defect-free in barrier applications for the packaging industry. When aluminum is applied to paper, hygroexpansion and substrate roughness can impair the aluminum coating. Neither effect is easy to detect [...] Read more.
Aluminum coatings, which are applied by physical vapor deposition (PVD), have to be virtually defect-free in barrier applications for the packaging industry. When aluminum is applied to paper, hygroexpansion and substrate roughness can impair the aluminum coating. Neither effect is easy to detect by microscopy, but both can manifest as an increase in electrical resistance. Here, we quantified the effect of substrate paper hygroexpansion and surface roughness on the effective resistivity ρEFF of aluminum coatings. The sheet resistance of aluminum coated onto four different rough paper surfaces was measured via eddy currents at different relative humidity (0%–95%). The mass of aluminum per unit area was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP–MS). We calculated ρEFF based on the measured resistance and aluminum mass per unit area, combined with a value for aluminum density from the literature. The substrate roughness was proportional to ρEFF. Relative humidity correlated with the moisture content of the paper substrate according to the Guggenheim, Anderson, and De Boer (GAB) equation, whereas the moisture content showed a linear correlation with hygroexpansion. At relative humidity of up to 50%, hygroexpansion was linearly correlated with the increase in ρEFF, which is related to the mechanical straining and deformation of aluminum. At higher humidity, aluminum started to crack first on rough substrates and later on smooth substrates. The increase in ρEFF was larger on rough substrates. The findings highlight the need for information about substrate roughness, humidity, and hygroexpansion when eddy current measurement results are compared, and will help to ensure that aluminum coatings, applied by PVD, are defect-free. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flexible Films and Coatings)
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Article
Combination of Electrodeposition and Transfer Processes for Flexible Thin-Film Thermoelectric Generators
Coatings 2018, 8(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings8010022 - 03 Jan 2018
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4165
Abstract
To reduce consumption for ambient assisted living (AAL) applications, we propose the design and fabrication of flexible thin-film thermoelectric generators at a low manufacturing cost. The generators were fabricated using a combination of electrodeposition and transfer processes. N-type Bi2Te3 films [...] Read more.
To reduce consumption for ambient assisted living (AAL) applications, we propose the design and fabrication of flexible thin-film thermoelectric generators at a low manufacturing cost. The generators were fabricated using a combination of electrodeposition and transfer processes. N-type Bi2Te3 films and p-type Sb2Te3 films were formed on a stainless-steel substrate employing potentiostatic electrodeposition using a nitric acid-based bath, followed by a transfer process. Three types of flexible thin-film thermoelectric generators were fabricated. The open circuit voltage (Voc) and maximum output power (Pmax) were measured by applying a temperature difference between the ends of the generator. The thin-film generators obtained using thermoplastic sheets with epoxy resin exhibited a Voc that was tens of millivolts. In particular, the contact resistance of the thin-film generator decreased when silver paste was inserted at the junctions between the n- and p-type films. The most flexible thin-film generator fabricated in this study exhibited a Pmax of 10.4 nW at a temperature difference of 60 K. The current performance of the generators was too low, but we innovated a combination process to prepare them. It is expected to increase the performance by further decreasing the micro-cracks and contact resistance in the generators. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flexible Films and Coatings)
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