Special Issue "Surface Engineering for Friction and Wear Reduction"

A special issue of Coatings (ISSN 2079-6412). This special issue belongs to the section "Surface Characterization, Deposition and Modification".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Carsten Gachot
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria
Interests: tribofilm formation in machine elements; materials tribology; surface engineering; wear processes; contact mechanics at different length scales
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Philipp Grützmacher
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Technische Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria
Interests: friction reduction in machine elements; materials tribology; surface engineering; laser surface texturing; solid lubricants; 2D materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

We would like to invite you to submit your research work to our Special Issue “Surface Engineering for Friction and Wear Reduction”. The discipline surface engineering includes a broad spectrum of techniques, which can be used to functionalize surfaces and develop a wide range of physical or chemical properties. There are plenty of applications for functionalized surfaces in the automotive, aerospace, power or biomedical sector. The focus of this particular Special Issue will be on approaches of surface engineering to tackle friction and wear. The deposition of wear protective coatings or texturing of materials’ surfaces are prominent means to reduce friction and wear in loaded contacts. Especially laser surface texturing or new honing concepts have proven to be efficient in creating new surface functionalities. Hard coatings like DLC, CrN or TiAlN, amongst others, or 2D materials such as graphene seem to be very promising concerning their tribological characteristics. The synergetic approach to combine the deposition of coatings and surface texturing, though, is also an interesting idea to overcome the respective limitations of each individual approach.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present the latest experimental and computational developments in the research field of surface engineering for friction and wear reduction, through a combination of original research papers and review articles from leading scientists around the world.

In particular, the topics of interest include but are not limited to:

  • Deposition of coatings for wear protection (e.g., PVD, CVD, thermal/plasma spraying);
  • New coating systems and designs for tribological applications;
  • Surface preparation and texturing techniques (e.g., mechanical and chemical polishing, honing, laser surface texturing, micro coining, hammer peening).

Prof. Dr. Carsten Gachot
Dr. Philipp Grützmacher
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Coatings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Combined Use of Surface Texturing, Plasma Nitriding and DLC Coating on Tool Steel
Coatings 2021, 11(2), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings11020201 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 561
Abstract
In cold rolling, a textured roll can be used to imprint a desired surface topography onto the sheet during rolling. This work proposes the use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings to protect the surface topography of the rolls in replacement of the carcinogenic [...] Read more.
In cold rolling, a textured roll can be used to imprint a desired surface topography onto the sheet during rolling. This work proposes the use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings to protect the surface topography of the rolls in replacement of the carcinogenic hard chrome. For that, hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) was deposited on plasma nitrided tool steel, both for ground and textured specimens. Changes in surface topography due to DLC coating were assessed using a confocal microscope. Coating adhesion was evaluated using the method VDI 3198. The specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coating was characterized using Raman spectroscopy (RS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed a soft multilayer coating consisting of a plasma nitrided layer for load support, a Si-rich interlayer to improve adhesion and an a-C:H top layer. DLC deposition reduced the roughness of the textured specimens. The coating resulted in relatively stable friction and good durability, with small damage and negligible wear even under dry sliding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering for Friction and Wear Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanical Investigations of ASTM A36 Welded Steels with Stainless Steel Cladding
Coatings 2020, 10(9), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10090844 - 30 Aug 2020
Viewed by 960
Abstract
The in-service life of ASTM A36 welded steel pipes in power plants is often shortened by ash corrosion. During the heating condition, the ash deposition on the welded steel pipes gradually reduces the thickness of the pipes, thus, reducing the lifetime. Instead of [...] Read more.
The in-service life of ASTM A36 welded steel pipes in power plants is often shortened by ash corrosion. During the heating condition, the ash deposition on the welded steel pipes gradually reduces the thickness of the pipes, thus, reducing the lifetime. Instead of replacing the pipes with new ones, the cost could be significantly reduced if the lifetime could be further extended. Weld cladding was the method selected in this study to temporarily extend the service life of welded pipes. This paper performed the mechanical investigations of A36—A36 welded steel plates after coating the surfaces with 309L stainless steel with a cladding method. The residual stress was also tested to observe the internal stresses developed during the welding processes of A36—A36 specimens. The comparison between the coated and non-coated surfaces of welded steels was performed by using the tensile tests (at room and elevated temperatures), corrosion (pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion, and weight-loss corrosion) tests, and wear (shot blasting) tests. The life-extension of both coatings was evaluated based on the tensile tests and the corrosion and wear tests provided the qualitative evaluations of the coating performance. The results showed that surfaces coated by cladding could be used to temporarily extend the life of ASTM A36 welded steel under the studied conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering for Friction and Wear Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Wear Behaviors of TiN/WS2 + hBN/NiCrBSi Self-Lubricating Composite Coatings on TC4 Alloy by Laser Cladding
Coatings 2020, 10(8), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10080747 - 30 Jul 2020
Viewed by 658
Abstract
TiN and WS2 + hBN reinforced Ni-based alloy self-lubricating composite coatings were fabricated on TC4 alloy by laser cladding using TiN, NiCrBSi, WS2, and hBN powder mixtures. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and optical microscopy [...] Read more.
TiN and WS2 + hBN reinforced Ni-based alloy self-lubricating composite coatings were fabricated on TC4 alloy by laser cladding using TiN, NiCrBSi, WS2, and hBN powder mixtures. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and optical microscopy (OM) were adopted to investigate the microstructure. The wear behaviors of the self-lubricating composite coatings were evaluated under large contact load in room temperature, dry-sliding wear-test conditions. Results indicated that the phases of the coatings mainly include γ-Ni, TiN, TiNi, TiW, WS2, and TiS mixtures. The average microhardness of the composite coating is 2.3–2.7 times that of the TC4 matrix. Laser cladding TiN/WS2 + hBN/NiCrBSi self-lubricating composite coatings revealed a higher wear resistance and lower friction coefficient than those of the TC4 alloy substrate. The friction coefficient (COF) of the coatings was oscillating around approximately 0.3458 due to the addition of self-lubricant WS2 + hBN and hard reinforcement TiN. The wear behaviors testing showed that the wear resistance of the as-received TC4 was significantly improved by a laser cladding TiN/WS2 + hBN/NiCrBSi self-lubricating composite coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering for Friction and Wear Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhanced Scratch Performance of Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Composite Coatings Reinforced with BN Nanoplatelets
Coatings 2020, 10(7), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10070652 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 639
Abstract
In recent years, research on hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings has been driven by the demands of clinical applications. However, the intrinsic brittleness of HA limits its potential in the use for the load-bearing implant. To improve mechanical properties of the HA coating itself, a [...] Read more.
In recent years, research on hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings has been driven by the demands of clinical applications. However, the intrinsic brittleness of HA limits its potential in the use for the load-bearing implant. To improve mechanical properties of the HA coating itself, a HA composite coating reinforced with hexagonal boron nitride nanoplatelets (BNNP) was fabricated using plasma spray, and its scratch behavior was investigated in this research. Typical brittle fractures such as microcracks both in and beyond the residual groove and material chipping were observed in the HA coating, while stronger and tougher BNNP/HA coatings exhibited a dominant role in protecting them from scratch damage through resisting plastic deformation and brittle microfracturing. Moreover, easier grain sliding within a splat and splat sliding at the splat boundaries due to the presence of BNNPs, and the nature porosity at different length scales of the as-sprayed HA composite coatings would provide significant self-lubricating effects to reduce the lateral force during scratching and alleviate the contact damage. Therefore, the addition of BNNPs renders HA coating with low scratch friction and enhanced tolerance to surface damage, which is naturally beneficial for the long-term durability and reliability of the implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering for Friction and Wear Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Tribological Properties of Stainless Steel Surfaces by Femtosecond Laser Irradiation
Coatings 2020, 10(7), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10070606 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 719
Abstract
A possibility of improving tribological properties by femtosecond laser irradiation on an example of a steel surface by creating regularly arranged micro-grooved textures that contain self-organized microstructures and nano laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) was determined. The friction coefficient of the treated surface [...] Read more.
A possibility of improving tribological properties by femtosecond laser irradiation on an example of a steel surface by creating regularly arranged micro-grooved textures that contain self-organized microstructures and nano laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) was determined. The friction coefficient of the treated surface of a sample of cold-rolled 1.4301 stainless steel was evaluated using a CSM Instruments SA tribometer according to a Pin-on-disk test scheme at a specific pressure of 1 MPa. It was found that the coefficient of friction was reduced by 35% compared to the initial grinded surface. Such laser treatment can find application for using parts in conditions of dry or boundary friction, mainly in units, in which the use of lubricant is unacceptable or extremely undesirable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering for Friction and Wear Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Nb Content on the Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Fe-12Cr-xNb-4C Coatings Prepared by Plasma-Transferred Arc Welding
Coatings 2020, 10(6), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10060585 - 23 Jun 2020
Viewed by 704
Abstract
The Fe-Cr-C coatings with different levels of Nb addition were prepared on carbon steel by a plasma transferred arc (PTA) weld-surfacing process and their microstructure and properties were investigated. As the Nb content increases from 8.96% to 12.55%, the coating gradually changes from [...] Read more.
The Fe-Cr-C coatings with different levels of Nb addition were prepared on carbon steel by a plasma transferred arc (PTA) weld-surfacing process and their microstructure and properties were investigated. As the Nb content increases from 8.96% to 12.55%, the coating gradually changes from a hypereutectic structure (martensite, austenite matrix, primary NbC and eutectic γ+M7C3) to a near eutectic structure (γ+M7C3 and NbC) and finally a hypoeutectic structure (primary γ, γ+M7C3 and NbC). As the Nb content increases, the hardness and wear resistance of the coating first increase and then decrease, which is closely related to the NbC volume fraction first increasing and then the NbC size coarsening. The Fe-Cr-C coating with 11.65% Nb balances the NbC content and size, and has the highest hardness and best wear resistance. As the Nb content increases further, the formation and aggregation of coarse NbC carbides in the coating results in high brittleness of the coating, which may cause the carbide particles to peel off the coating during the wear process, thereby reducing wear resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering for Friction and Wear Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Properties of Cr-Fe2B Composite Coatings Prepared by Pack-Preboronizing Combined with Electro Brush-Plating
Coatings 2020, 10(6), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10060519 - 28 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 737
Abstract
Cr-Fe2B composite coatings were prepared on carbon steels by pack-boronizing followed by electro brush-plating. The microstructure and properties of the coatings annealed at different temperatures were studied. The coatings show a gradient structure composed of a Cr-layer and a Fe2 [...] Read more.
Cr-Fe2B composite coatings were prepared on carbon steels by pack-boronizing followed by electro brush-plating. The microstructure and properties of the coatings annealed at different temperatures were studied. The coatings show a gradient structure composed of a Cr-layer and a Fe2B-layer and have excellent thermal stability, and no new layers and/or transition layers are formed in the coating during annealing up to 1000 °C. The Cr-layer has an amorphous structure and is transformed into nanosized grains when the annealing temperature increases to 700 °C. As the annealing temperature is further increased, the nanograins grow rapidly. The microcracks in the Cr-layer increase sharply after annealing at 550 °C and then decrease significantly with any further increase of the annealing temperature. The pre-deposited Fe2B-layer prevents the formation of carbon-poor zones in the steel substrate during annealing. It is considered that high-temperature (>700 °C) annealing helps to eliminate coating defects, increase the coating density and obtain better wear resistance and corrosion resistance. Surprisingly, the as-plated and low temperature annealed samples also show good wear resistance and corrosion resistance, which may be related to their amorphous structure and nanocrystalline structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering for Friction and Wear Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Spectral Techniques Applied to Evaluate Pavement Friction and Surface Texture
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040424 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 807
Abstract
To study texture of pavement surfaces and its effect on pavement friction, this article features a field experiment conducted on in-service pavements to characterize surface texture by spectral analysis to substantiate links to friction values. Pavement friction was measured using a Mu-meter and [...] Read more.
To study texture of pavement surfaces and its effect on pavement friction, this article features a field experiment conducted on in-service pavements to characterize surface texture by spectral analysis to substantiate links to friction values. Pavement friction was measured using a Mu-meter and British pendulum tester whereas texture data was collected using a stationary laser profilometer. Texture spectra were analyzed and expressed in third octave bands. The correlation between texture spectral levels and friction values at different speeds are discussed in the paper. Results show that the texture level, including spectral band levels, can well represent texture characteristics, as texture spectral levels have a good correlation with friction coefficient, especially the texture level of texture wavelengths at 1.25–12.5 mm versus SFCsl (representing the slope of the side force coefficient (SFC) versus speed), i.e., the slope of friction versus speed. This friction parameter gives better correlations with texture parameters than friction values at different speeds, which is believed to be an effect of the drainage caused by texture in that wavelength range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering for Friction and Wear Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Laser Hardening Process Parameters on Hardness Profile of 4340 Steel Spline—An Experimental Approach
Coatings 2020, 10(4), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10040342 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 724
Abstract
This study displays the effect of laser surface hardening parameters on the hardness profile (case depth) of a splined shaft made of AISI 4340 steel. The approach is mainly based on experimental tests wherein the hardness profile of laser hardened splines is acquired [...] Read more.
This study displays the effect of laser surface hardening parameters on the hardness profile (case depth) of a splined shaft made of AISI 4340 steel. The approach is mainly based on experimental tests wherein the hardness profile of laser hardened splines is acquired using micro-hardness measurements. These results are then evaluated with statistical analysis (ANOVA) to determine the principal effect and the contributions of each parameter in the laser hardening process. Using empirical correlations, the case depth of splined shaft at tip and root of spline’s teeth is also estimated and verified with measured data. The obtained results were then used to study the sensitivity of the measured case depths according to the evolution of laser process parameters and geometrical factors. The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed approach lead to a reliable statistical model in which the hardness profile of the spline is estimated with respect to its specific geometry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering for Friction and Wear Reduction)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Process Conditions on the Growth and Texture of CVD Alpha-Alumina
Coatings 2020, 10(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings10020158 - 09 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
In the present study, the influence of experimental variables on the growth characteristics and texture development in chemically vapour deposited α-Al2O3 coatings was investigated. The emphasis was on the effects of H2S. The α-Al2O3 layers [...] Read more.
In the present study, the influence of experimental variables on the growth characteristics and texture development in chemically vapour deposited α-Al2O3 coatings was investigated. The emphasis was on the effects of H2S. The α-Al2O3 layers were deposited from the AlCl3-H2-CO2-HCl-H2S precursor system onto intermediate Ti(C,N) layers. The substrate was cemented carbide. The coatings were characterized with respect to microstructure and texture using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron back-scattering diffraction. The observations were unpredictable, suggesting that in addition to the growth rate, H2S strongly affected the texture of the α-Al2O3 coatings. The uncatalyzed α-Al2O3 coatings (H2S = 0) developed (11 2 ¯ 0) texture. With the increment of H2S concentration the texture changed from (11 2 ¯ 0) texture through (10 1 ¯ 0), (10 1 ¯ 2) and (10 1 ¯ 4) textures to (0001) texture. Growth regimes for (11 2 ¯ 0), (10 1 ¯ 0), (10 1 ¯ 2), (10 1 ¯ 4) and (0001) textures were depicted as a function of the H2S/CO2 ratio. Examples of grain-boundary and microstructural manipulation of CVD α-Al2O3 layers by applying texture control were presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Engineering for Friction and Wear Reduction)
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