Special Issue "Impact of Climate-Change on Water Resources"

A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019) | Viewed by 20792

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Special Issue Editors

Dr. Christina Anagnostopoulou
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Guest Editor
Department of Meteorology and Climatology, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: climatology; climate change; extremes; climate hazards; statistical climatology; synoptic climatology-weather types; dynamic climatology–teleconnection patterns
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Charalampos Skoulikaris
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
UNESCO Chair INWEB Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: hydroinformatics; rainfall-runoff models; snowmelt process on hydrology; water resources management; climate change on water resources
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water is located at the core of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. Apart from Goal 6 “Clean Water and Sanitation”, other proposed goals also include different water targets for achieving the majority of the SDGs.

At the same time, management and allocation of water resources is not a forthright procedure. Water users and stakeholders claim these resources for coverage of their own demands, such as domestic and industrial supply, irrigated agriculture, hydropower production and ecosystems preservation. In cases of transboundary water resources, differentiations in national strategies, development priorities, and economic status among countries that share these resources induce more complexity in the management of water. Moreover, this complication may be further affected due to the demographic and climatic change drivers that increase the stress on water resources.

According to IPCC, climate change is expected to have dramatic effects on water resources. Climate model simulations for the 21st century are consistent in projecting temperature increases that will result in water temperature increase, rising sea levels and changes in coastal and oceans regions. Higher water temperatures and changes in extremes, including floods and droughts, are projected to affect water quality and exacerbate many forms of water pollution. To better understand the mechanisms of climate variability and climate change on water resources, it is crucial to have multidisciplinary studies that involve climatology and hydrology.

This Special Issue aims to contribute to the understanding hydrological processes and efficient water management strategies in changing climate. Moreover, it will consist of papers that integrate different scales, from catchment, to region, and to globe.

Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Understanding and modelling changing climate relating to the hydrological cycle
  • Climate extremes and impacts on water resources
  • water availability in a changing climate
  • Climate change and impacts on water supply
  • climate change mitigation measures
  • Adaptation strategies for water resources in a changing environment

Dr. Christina Anagnostopoulou
Dr. Charalampos Skoulikaris
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • water resources management
  • climate change
  • extremes
  • drought
  • floods
  • water stress
  • water quality
  • water availability

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Hydrological Modeling Response to Climate Model Spatial Analysis of a South Eastern Europe International Basin
Climate 2020, 8(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli8010001 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1679
Abstract
One of the most common questions in hydrological modeling addresses the issue of input data resolution. Is the spatial analysis of the meteorological/climatological data adequate to ensure the description of simulated phenomena, e.g., the discharges in rainfall–runoff models at the river basin scale, [...] Read more.
One of the most common questions in hydrological modeling addresses the issue of input data resolution. Is the spatial analysis of the meteorological/climatological data adequate to ensure the description of simulated phenomena, e.g., the discharges in rainfall–runoff models at the river basin scale, to a sufficient degree? The aim of the proposed research was to answer this specific question by investigating the response of a spatially distributed hydrological model to climatic inputs of various spatial resolution. In particular, ERA-Interim gridded precipitation and temperature datasets of low, medium, and high resolution, i.e., 0.50° × 0.50°, 0.25° × 0.25°, and 0.125° × 0.125°, respectively, were used to feed a distributed hydrological model that was applied to a transboundary river basin in the Balkan Peninsula, while all the other model’s parameters were maintained the same at each simulation run. The outputs demonstrate that, for the extent of the specific basin study, the simulated discharges were adequately correlated with the observed ones, with the marginally best results presented in the case of precipitation and temperature of 0.25° × 0.25° spatial analysis. The results of the research indicate that the selection of ERA-Interim data can indeed improve or facilitate the researcher’s outputs when dealing with regional hydrologic simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate-Change on Water Resources)
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Article
The Global Trend of the Net Irrigation Water Requirement of Maize from 1960 to 2050
Climate 2019, 7(10), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7100124 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2351
Abstract
Irrigated production around the world has significantly increased over the last decade. However, climate change is a new threat that could seriously aggravate the irrigation water supplies and request. In this study, the data is derived from the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). [...] Read more.
Irrigated production around the world has significantly increased over the last decade. However, climate change is a new threat that could seriously aggravate the irrigation water supplies and request. In this study, the data is derived from the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). For the climate change scenarios, five Global Climate Models (GCMs) have been used. By using the CROPWAT approach of Smith, the net irrigation water requirement (IRnet) was calculated. For the estimation of the potential evapotranspiration (Epot), the method in Raziei and Pereira was used. According to representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5, these increases vary between 0.74% (North America) and 20.92% (North America) while the RCP 8.5 predict increases of 4.06% (sub-Saharan Africa) to more than 68% (North America). The results also show that the region of Latin America is the region with the large amount of IRnet with coprime value between 1.39 km3/yr (GFDL 4.5) and 1.48 km3/yr (CSIRO 4.5) while sub-Saharan Africa has the smallest IRnet amount between 0.13 km3/yr (GFDL 8.5) and 0.14 km3/yr (ECHAM 8.5). However, the most affected countries by this impact are those in sub-Saharan Africa. This study will probably help decision-makers to make corrections in making their decision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate-Change on Water Resources)
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Article
Projected Changes in the Frequency of Peak Flows along the Athabasca River: Sensitivity of Results to Statistical Methods of Analysis
Climate 2019, 7(7), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7070088 - 04 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1828
Abstract
Flows originating from alpine dominated cold region watersheds typically experience extended winter low flows followed by spring snowmelt and summer rainfall driven high flows. In a warmer climate, there will be a temperature-induced shift in precipitation from snowfall towards rain along with changes [...] Read more.
Flows originating from alpine dominated cold region watersheds typically experience extended winter low flows followed by spring snowmelt and summer rainfall driven high flows. In a warmer climate, there will be a temperature-induced shift in precipitation from snowfall towards rain along with changes in precipitation intensity and snowmelt timing, resulting in alterations in the frequency and magnitude of peak flow events. This study examines the potential future changes in the frequency and severity of peak flow events in the Athabasca River watershed in Alberta, Canada. The analysis is based on simulated flow data by the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model driven by statistically downscaled climate change scenarios from the latest coupled model inter-comparison project (CMIP5). The hydrological model projections show an overall increase in mean annual streamflow in the watershed and a corresponding shift in the freshet timing to an earlier period. The river flow is projected to experience increases during the winter and spring seasons and decreases during the summer and early fall seasons, with an overall projected increase in peak flow, especially for low frequency events. Both stationary and non-stationary methods of peak flow analysis, performed at multiple points along the Athabasca River, show that projected changes in the 100-year peak flow event for the high emissions scenario by the 2080s range between 4% and 33% depending on the driving climate models and the statistical method of analysis. A closer examination of the results also reveals that the sensitivity of projected changes in peak flows to the statistical method of frequency analysis is relatively small compared to that resulting from inter-climate model variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate-Change on Water Resources)
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Article
Climate Change Induced Salinization of Drinking Water Inlets along a Tidal Branch of the Rhine River: Impact Assessment and an Adaptive Strategy for Water Resources Management
Climate 2019, 7(4), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7040049 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2143
Abstract
This study presents the results of an impact analysis of climate change on salinization and the long-term availability of drinking water resources along the river Lek, a tidal branch of the Rhine delta, and a potential mitigation measure. To this end, a one-dimensional [...] Read more.
This study presents the results of an impact analysis of climate change on salinization and the long-term availability of drinking water resources along the river Lek, a tidal branch of the Rhine delta, and a potential mitigation measure. To this end, a one-dimensional modelling approach was used that enabled studying 50 years of variation in discharge and tide in current and future climate. It was found that all locations are increasingly vulnerable to salt intrusion caused by the combination of sea level rise and decreasing river discharges. This affects both the yearly average chloride concentration and long duration exceedances of the threshold value of 150 mg/L. It was also found that diverting a higher fresh water discharge to the Lek of several tens of cubic meters per second reduces the risk of salinization at the upstream inlet locations. However, the increased influence of seawater intrusion on the drinking water inlets cannot be fully compensated for by this measure. The potential gain of the extra water for the drinking water inlets along the Lek has to be balanced against the impact of this measure on water levels and stream flows in other parts of the river system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate-Change on Water Resources)
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Communication
Climate Change and Extreme Weather Drive the Declines of Saline Lakes: A Showcase of the Great Salt Lake
Climate 2019, 7(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020019 - 23 Jan 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2867
Abstract
A viewpoint of a temporal trend with an extremely changing point analysis is proposed to analyze and characterize the so-called current declines of the world’s saline lakes. A temporal trend of a hydrological or climate variable is statistically tested by regressing it against [...] Read more.
A viewpoint of a temporal trend with an extremely changing point analysis is proposed to analyze and characterize the so-called current declines of the world’s saline lakes. A temporal trend of a hydrological or climate variable is statistically tested by regressing it against time; if the regression is statistically significant, an ascending or declining trend exists. The extremely changing points can be found out by using the mean of a variable, adding or subtracting two times of its standard deviation (SD) for extremely high values and extremely low values, respectively. Applying the temporal trend method to the Great Salt Lake’s (GSL) relationship between its surface levels and precipitation/temperature in the last century, we conclude that climate changes, especially local warming and extreme weather including both precipitation and temperature, drive the dynamics (increases and declines) of the GSL surface levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate-Change on Water Resources)
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Article
Temporal Changes in Precipitation and Temperature and their Implications on the Streamflow of Rosi River, Central Nepal
Climate 2019, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7010003 - 28 Dec 2018
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 3129
Abstract
Nepal has experienced recent changes in two crucial climatic variables: temperature and precipitation. Therefore, climate-induced water security concerns have now become more pronounced in Nepal as changes in temperature and precipitation have already altered some hydrological processes such as the river runoff in [...] Read more.
Nepal has experienced recent changes in two crucial climatic variables: temperature and precipitation. Therefore, climate-induced water security concerns have now become more pronounced in Nepal as changes in temperature and precipitation have already altered some hydrological processes such as the river runoff in some river systems. However, the linkage between precipitation patterns and streamflow characteristics are poorly understood, especially in small rivers. We analysed the temporal trends of temperature, precipitation, and extreme indices of wet and dry spells in the Rosi watershed in Central Nepal, and observed the temporal patterns of the streamflow of the Rosi river. We also examined the linkages between the average and extreme climate indices and streamflow. We found that the area has warmed up by an average of 0.03 °C/year, and has seen a significant decline in precipitation. The dry spell as represented by the maximum length of the dry spell (CDD) and the magnitude of dryness (AII) has become more pronounced, while the wet spell as represented by the number of heavy rainfall days (R5D) and the precipitation intensity on wet days (SDII) has diminished significantly. Our analysis shows that recent changes in precipitation patterns have affected the streamflow of the Rosi river, as manifested in the observed decline in annual and seasonal streamflows. The decrease in the availability of water in the river is likely to have severe consequences for water security in the area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate-Change on Water Resources)
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Article
Evaluation of Gridded Multi-Satellite Precipitation Estimation (TRMM-3B42-V7) Performance in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB)
Climate 2018, 6(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli6030076 - 07 Sep 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3211
Abstract
The present study aims to evaluate the capability of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), version 7 (TRMM-3B42-V7) precipitation product to estimate appropriate precipitation rates in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) by analyzing the dependency of the estimates’ accuracies [...] Read more.
The present study aims to evaluate the capability of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), version 7 (TRMM-3B42-V7) precipitation product to estimate appropriate precipitation rates in the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) by analyzing the dependency of the estimates’ accuracies on the time scale. To that avail, various statistical analyses and comparison of Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) products with gauge measurements in the UIB are carried out. The dependency of the TMPA estimates’ quality on the aggregation time scale is analyzed by comparisons of daily, monthly, seasonal and annual sums for the UIB. The results show considerable biases in the TMPA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) precipitation estimates for the UIB, as well as high numbers of false alarms and miss ratios. The correlation of the TMPA estimates with ground-based gauge data increases considerably and almost in a linear fashion with increasing temporal aggregation, i.e., time scale. There is a predominant trend of underestimation of the TRMM product across the UIB at most of the gauge stations, i.e., TRMM-estimated rainfall is generally lower than the gauge-measured rainfall. For the seasonal aggregates, the bias is mostly positive for the summer but predominantly negative for the winter season, thereby showing a slight overestimation of the precipitation in summer and underestimation in winter. The results of the study suggest that, in spite of these discrepancies between TMPA estimates and gauge data, the use of the former in hydrological watershed modeling undertaken by the authors may be a valuable alternative in data-scarce regions like the UIB, but still must be taken with a grain of salt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate-Change on Water Resources)
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Other

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Case Report
Estimating the Future Function of the Nipsa Reservoir due to Climate Change and Debris Sediment Factors
Climate 2019, 7(6), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7060076 - 28 May 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1560
Abstract
The constantly growing human needs for water aiming to supply urban areas or for energy production or irrigation purposes enforces the application of practices leading to its saving. The construction of dams has been continuously increasing in recent years, aiming at the collection [...] Read more.
The constantly growing human needs for water aiming to supply urban areas or for energy production or irrigation purposes enforces the application of practices leading to its saving. The construction of dams has been continuously increasing in recent years, aiming at the collection and storage of water in the formed reservoirs. The greatest challenge that reservoirs face during their lifetime is the sedimentation caused by debris and by the effects of climate change on water harvesting. The paper presents an investigation on the amount, the position and the height of the debris ending up at the Nipsa reservoir. The assessment of the debris volume produced in the drainage basin was conducted by a geographical information system (GIS) based model, named TopRunDF, also used to predict the sedimentation area and the sediment deposition height in the sedimentation cone. The impact of climate change to the reservoir storage capacity is evaluated with the use of a water balance model triggered by the HadCM2, ECHAM4, CSIRO-MK2, CGCM1, CCSR-98 climate change models. The results predict a significant future decrease in the stored water volume of the reservoir, and therefore several recommendations are proposed for the proper future functioning and operation of the reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate-Change on Water Resources)
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