Special Issue "Air Pollution and Plant Ecosystems"

A special issue of Climate (ISSN 2225-1154).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 July 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Evgenios Agathokleous
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Ecology, School of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
Interests: global change impacts on plant ecosystems; air pollution biomonitoring; carbon dioxide; dose responses; ecophysiology; forests; ozone; temperature; trees; hormesis; adaptive response
Dr. Elisa Carrari
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, Firenze, Italy
Interests: botany; forest ecology; forest monitoring; plant biodiversity; plant ecophysiology; plant stress; ozone
Dr. Pierre Sicard
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
ARGANS, Sophia Antipolis, France
Interests: air pollution and climate change impacts on forests; modelling ozone uptake by vegetation; surveys campaigns and epidemiological study (visible ozone injury); assessment of stomatal ozone flux-based critical levels for visible ozone injury; validation of satellite-derived products by specific surveys at ground-based monitoring sites; statistical and multivariate analysis (e.g., co-kriging, spatio-temporal changes)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue comprises papers deal with air pollution and air pollution effects on plant ecosystems.

Along these lines, it includes papers presented at the International Conference on Ozone and Plant Ecosystems (2nd Ozone and Plants Conference), held from May 21 to May 25, 2018, in Florence, Italy, as well as excellent contributions from those who did not have the opportunity to attend the conference.

Air pollution, and especially surface ozone, continues to be a serious issue for terrestrial ecosystems and plant health. Progress has been achieved by controlling the emission of precursors in some areas of the world, but much remains to be done. The International Conference on Ozone and Plant Ecosystems allowed all experts in the interactions between ozone and plant ecosystems to meet and discuss the state-of-the-art and strategies for continuous improvements. The three man subjects of the conference were:

  1. Monitoring, modelling and assessing the risk of ozone damage to plant ecosystems
  2. How plant ecosystems respond to ozone exposure
  3. How plant ecosystems affect ozone concentration in the atmosphere

The Guest Editors invite papers that promote and advance the exciting and rapidly-changing field of Air Pollution and Plant Ecosystems. Papers which exclusively deal with any aspects of tropospheric ozone or other air pollutants (physics-chemistry) are also welcome.

Prof. Dr. Evgenios Agathokleous
Dr. Elisa Carrari
Dr. Pierre Sicard
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Climate is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • air pollution
  • ozone
  • plants
  • ecosystems
  • food security
  • modeling
  • monitoring
  • risk assessment
  • plant response
  • urban green
  • vegetation-atmosphere interactions

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Grapevine and Ozone: Uptake and Effects
Climate 2019, 7(12), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7120140 - 12 Dec 2019
Abstract
The grapevine (Vitis vinifera, L.) has been long since recognized as an ozone-sensitive plant. Ozone molecules can penetrate grapevine leaf tissues when the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere is high due to air pollution. This causes cell damage and interferes [...] Read more.
The grapevine (Vitis vinifera, L.) has been long since recognized as an ozone-sensitive plant. Ozone molecules can penetrate grapevine leaf tissues when the concentration of ozone in the atmosphere is high due to air pollution. This causes cell damage and interferes with photosynthetic mechanisms, subsequently slowing down plant growth and resulting in premature leaf senescence. Secondary effects include changes in biochemical processes that affect the chemical composition of the must and are likely to alter the quality of the wine. An experiment was conducted during two grapevine-growing seasons in 2010 and 2011 to gain knowledge of the effect of high ozone levels on the yield and on several biochemical characteristics of the plant which could influence the quality of the final product. These factors are economically important for agricultural production; this is especially true for Italy, which is one of the largest wine producers worldwide. The method used was a facility consisting of open top chambers operated at a vineyard in Angera (northern Italy). This facility permitted the study of the effects of different ozone levels. At the end of the experiment, the grapes were weighed and chemical analyses were carried out in order to understand the effects of ozone on the different characteristics of the grapes and on concentrations of several of its chemical substances. In particular, concentrations of yeast assimilable nitrogen, degrees Brix, pH, tartaric and malic acids, and polyphenols, including resveratrol, were considered, as these influence the quality of the wine. Parameters characterizing the different ozone levels were expressed in terms of ozone exposure (AOT40) and phytotoxic ozone dose (POD). The results showed that high ozone levels affect grapevine weight and thus its yield. In addition, the quality of the wine is affected by reductions of polyphenols which diminish the nutritional benefits of the product. In addition, these reductions cause the wine to have a more aggressive taste. These results emphasize the practical importance of the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Plant Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Combined CO2 and O3 Exposures on Net CO2 Assimilation and Biomass Allocation in Seedlings of the Late-Successional Fagus Crenata
Climate 2019, 7(10), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7100117 - 26 Sep 2019
Abstract
We examined the effects of elevated CO2 and elevated O3 concentrations on net CO2 assimilation and growth of Fagus crenata in a screen-aided free-air concentration-enrichment (FACE) system. Seedlings were exposed to ambient air (control), elevated CO2 (550 µmol mol [...] Read more.
We examined the effects of elevated CO2 and elevated O3 concentrations on net CO2 assimilation and growth of Fagus crenata in a screen-aided free-air concentration-enrichment (FACE) system. Seedlings were exposed to ambient air (control), elevated CO2 (550 µmol mol−1 CO2, +CO2), elevated O3 (double the control, +O3), and the combination of elevated CO2 and O3 (+CO2+O3) for two growing seasons. The responses in light-saturated net CO2 assimilation rates per leaf area (Agrowth-CO2) at each ambient CO2 concentration to the elevated CO2 and/or O3 treatments varied widely with leaf age. In older leaves, Agrowth-CO2 was lower in the presence of +O3 than in untreated controls, but +CO2+O3 treatment had no effect on Agrowth-CO2 compared with the +CO2 treatment. Total plant biomass increased under conditions of elevated CO2 and was largest in the +CO2+O3 treatment. Biomass allocation to roots decreased with elevated CO2 and with elevated O3. Elongation of second-flush shoots also increased in the presence of elevated CO2 and was largest in the +CO2+O3 treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that conditions of elevated CO2 and O3 contribute to enhanced plant growth; reflecting changes in biomass allocation and mitigation of the negative impacts of O3 on net CO2 assimilation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Plant Ecosystems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Light Energy Partitioning under Various Environmental Stresses Combined with Elevated CO2 in Three Deciduous Broadleaf Tree Species in Japan
Climate 2019, 7(6), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7060079 - 03 Jun 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Understanding plant response to excessive light energy not consumed by photosynthesis under various environmental stresses, would be important for maintaining biosphere sustainability. Based on previous studies regarding nitrogen (N) limitation, drought in Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica), and elevated [...] Read more.
Understanding plant response to excessive light energy not consumed by photosynthesis under various environmental stresses, would be important for maintaining biosphere sustainability. Based on previous studies regarding nitrogen (N) limitation, drought in Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica), and elevated O3 in Japanese oak (Quercus mongolica var. crispula) and Konara oak (Q. serrata) under future-coming elevated CO2 concentrations, we newly analyze the fate of absorbed light energy by a leaf, partitioning into photochemical processes, including photosynthesis, photorespiration and regulated and non-regulated, non-photochemical quenchings. No significant increases in the rate of non-regulated non-photochemical quenching (JNO) were observed in plants grown under N limitation, drought and elevated O3 in ambient or elevated CO2. This suggests that the risk of photodamage caused by excessive light energy was not increased by environmental stresses reducing photosynthesis, irrespective of CO2 concentrations. The rate of regulated non-photochemical quenching (JNPQ), which contributes to regulating photoprotective thermal dissipation, could well compensate decreases in the photosynthetic electron transport rate through photosystem II (JPSII) under various environmental stresses, since JNPQ+JPSII was constant across the treatment combinations. It is noteworthy that even decreases in JNO were observed under N limitation and elevated O3, irrespective of CO2 conditions, which may denote a preconditioning-mode adaptive response for protection against further stress. Such an adaptive response may not fully compensate for the negative effects of lethal stress, but may be critical for coping with non-lethal stress and regulating homeostasis. Regarding the three deciduous broadleaf tree species, elevated CO2 appears not to influence the plant responses to environmental stresses from the viewpoint of susceptibility to photodamage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Plant Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Wetness Index to Evaluate the Soil Water Availability Influence on Gross Primary Production of European Forests
Climate 2019, 7(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7030042 - 19 Mar 2019
Abstract
Rising temperature, drought and more-frequent extreme climatic events have been predicted for the next decades in many regions around the globe. In this framework, soil water availability plays a pivotal role in affecting vegetation productivity, especially in arid or semi-arid environments. However, direct [...] Read more.
Rising temperature, drought and more-frequent extreme climatic events have been predicted for the next decades in many regions around the globe. In this framework, soil water availability plays a pivotal role in affecting vegetation productivity, especially in arid or semi-arid environments. However, direct measurements of soil moisture are scarce, and modeling estimations are still subject to biases. Further investigation on the effect of soil moisture on plant productivity is required. This study aims at analyzing spatio-temporal variations of a modified temperature vegetation wetness index (mTVWI), a proxy of soil moisture, and evaluating its effect on gross primary production (GPP) in forests. The study was carried out in Europe on 19 representative tree species during the 2000–2010 time period. Results outline a north–south gradient of mTVWI with minimum values (low soil water availability) in Southern Europe and maximum values (high soil water availability) in Northeastern Europe. A low soil water availability negatively affected GPP from 20 to 80%, as a function of site location, tree species, and weather conditions. Such a wetness index improves our understanding of water stress impacts, which is crucial for predicting the response of forest carbon cycling to drought and aridity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Plant Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle
High Variation in Resource Allocation Strategies among 11 Indian Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Cultivars Growing in High Ozone Environment
Climate 2019, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7020023 - 28 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Eleven local cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were chosen to study the effect of ambient ozone (O3) concentration in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India at two high-ozone experimental sites by using 300 ppm of Ethylenediurea (EDU) as a [...] Read more.
Eleven local cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were chosen to study the effect of ambient ozone (O3) concentration in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of India at two high-ozone experimental sites by using 300 ppm of Ethylenediurea (EDU) as a chemical protectant against O3. The O3 level was more than double the critical threshold reported for wheat grain production (AOT40 8.66 ppm h). EDU-grown plants had higher grain yield, biomass, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, less lipid peroxidation, changes in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, changes in content of oxidized and reduced glutathione compared to non-EDU plants, thus indicating the severity of O3 induced productivity loss. Based on the yield at two different growing sites, the cultivars could be addressed in four response groups: (a) generally well-adapted cultivars (above-average yield); (b) poorly-adapted (below-average yield); (c) adapted to low-yield environment (below-average yield); and (d) sensitive cultivars (adapted to high-yield environment). EDU responses were dependent on the cultivar, the developmental phase (vegetative, flowering and harvest) and the experimental site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Plant Ecosystems)
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Open AccessArticle
Temporal and Spatial Ozone Distribution over Egypt
Climate 2018, 6(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli6020046 - 29 May 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
The long-term temporal trends and spatial distribution of Ozone (O3) over Egypt is presented using monthly data from both the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the model Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) datasets. The twelve-year monthly record (2005–2016) [...] Read more.
The long-term temporal trends and spatial distribution of Ozone (O3) over Egypt is presented using monthly data from both the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the model Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) datasets. The twelve-year monthly record (2005–2016) of the Total Ozone Column (TOC) has a spatial resolution of 1 × 1° from AIRS and 0.5 × 0.625° from the MERRA-2 dataset. The average monthly, seasonal and interannual time series are analyzed for their temporal trends, while the seasonal average spatial distributions are compared. It was found that MERRA-2 underestimated AIRS measurements. Both AIRS and MERRA-2 have their minimum monthly averages of TOC in February 2013. The maximum monthly average TOC from AIRS is 321.48 DU in July 2012, while that from MERRA-2 is 303.48 in April 2011. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution and Plant Ecosystems)
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