Grapevine and Ozone: Uptake and Effects
2. Materials and Methods
- Grape weight per bunch. There is a significant difference between the samples obtained from the filtered OTCs and from the other two treatments (p = 0.0213). However, the p value corresponding to the unfiltered versus external couple is too high (0.22) to imply any significance. Notwithstanding the difference in ozone levels between the unfiltered and external treatments, little difference in the bunch weights is detectable. This is probably due to an effect of the open top chambers in which the physical conditions were not the same as in the open air (i.e., for the external samples). However, significant differences between the weight of the bunches enclosed in the filtered and unfiltered OTCs are clearly visible (see Figure 8), with p = 0.0166. This result shows that higher ozone levels cause a reduction in yields, at least in the case of our experiment.
- Degrees Brix. This variable expresses the sugar content of the must and is widely used in the wine production industry. A rather important effect of ozone levels appears (see Figure 8), especially between samples enclosed in filtered OTCs and external samples (p = 0.0022). The difference is less clear between filtered and unfiltered samples.
- Polyphenols. Here, no clear difference appears between unfiltered and external samples, but the samples enclosed in filtered OTCs are characterized by a much higher content of polyphenols (p = 0.045). These substances are known as antioxidants and have health effects on digestion, for example. The results presented here indicate that high ozone content in air can counterbalance the health effects of polyphenols present in wine.
- Anthocyanins. These pigments present in grapes show a significant difference (p = 0.046) between plants enclosed in filtered OTCs and external ones.
- Malic acid. No significant difference was found between the three treatments due to the overlap of variability ranges for the different treatments. All p values lie above 0.2.
- Titrable acidity. Differences appear rather clearly between plants enclosed in filtered and unfiltered OTCs (p = 0.0086) and between those enclosed in filtered OTCs and under external conditions (p = 0.0055).
- Assimilable nitrogen. Here, an opposite pattern with respect to most other variables can be seen: higher ozone levels result in higher assimilable nitrogen. The variance analysis for all three treatments combined shows good significance (p = 0.0032); the highest significance appears between the external plants and those enclosed in filtered OTCs (p = 0.00067).
- Trans-resveratrol. As for malic acid, no significant difference was found between the three treatments. All p values lie above 0.1.
- Trans-resveratrol glucoside. A significant difference (p = 0.033) appears between external plants and those enclosed in unfiltered OTCs. However, for this variable, no conclusion can be drawn about the effect of ozone between filtered and unfiltered OTCs.
4. Discussion and Conclusions
Conflicts of Interest
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|External||Filtered OTC||Unfiltered OTC|
|Grape weight per bunch (kg)||2.14 ± 0.45||2.50 ± 0.37||1.72 ± 0.54|
|Degrees Brix (°Bx)||20.62 ± 0.35||21.18 ± 0.42||20.94 ± 0.11|
|pH||3.32 ± 0.0||3.32 ± 0.1||3.35 ± 0.0|
|Titrable acidity (as tartaric acid, g/L)||5.35 ± 0.1||5.56 ± 0.2||5.37 ± 0.1|
|Density at 20 °C||1.090 ± 0.0||1.092 ± 0.0||1.091 ± 0.0|
|Tartaric acid (g/L)||6.25 ± 0.1||6.19 ± 0.3||6.15 ± 0.1|
|Malic acid (g/L)||2.41 ± 0.12||2.65 ± 0.40||2.40 ± 0.10|
|Potassium (mg/L)||1705 ± 27.9||1745 ± 69.8||1689 ± 37.2|
|Assimilable nitrogen (mg/L)||103.5 ± 14.3||76.0 ± 8.6||87.1 ± 10.0|
|Total anthocyanins (mg/kg)||569.3 ± 131.3||731.0 ± 98.8||668.7 ± 62.8|
|Total polyphenols (mg/kg)||992 ± 103||1141 ± 53||972 ± 22|
|Trans-resveratrol (mg/kg)||2.5 ± 0.8||3.1 ± 0.7||3.6 ± 1.1|
|Cis-resveratrol glucoside (mg/kg)||<0.1||<0.1||<0.1|
|Trans-resveratrol glucoside (mg/kg)||46.3 ± 6.7||40.4 ± 0.7||37.3 ± 3.7|
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Fumagalli, I.; Cieslik, S.; De Marco, A.; Proietti, C.; Paoletti, E. Grapevine and Ozone: Uptake and Effects. Climate 2019, 7, 140. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7120140
Fumagalli I, Cieslik S, De Marco A, Proietti C, Paoletti E. Grapevine and Ozone: Uptake and Effects. Climate. 2019; 7(12):140. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7120140Chicago/Turabian Style
Fumagalli, Ivano, Stanislaw Cieslik, Alessandra De Marco, Chiara Proietti, and Elena Paoletti. 2019. "Grapevine and Ozone: Uptake and Effects" Climate 7, no. 12: 140. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli7120140