Advances in Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Pediatric Allergy and Immunology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2020) | Viewed by 21205

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy
Interests: asthma; atopic dermatitis; rhinitis; food allergy; anaphylaxis; immunodeficiencies; vaccine; allergy prevention; drug
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Guest Editor
Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Pediatric Section, Pediatric Pulmonology Unit, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80138 Napoli, Italy
Interests: pediatric chronic pulmonary disorders; recurrent pneumonia in children; pediatric severe asthma; primary ciliary dyskinesia; sleep studies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Allergic and lung diseases are two of the most exciting fields in children. Recent understanding of pathomechanisms has led to identifying new diagnostic and therapeutic methods, while component-resolved diagnosis has changed the diagnostic approach as well as the clinical decision. New treatments, including monoclonal antibodies, an allergen specific immunotherapy, have increased the control of diseases.

In addition, pediatric patients may benefit from innovative measures that have been shown to prevent the development of allergic and lung diseases. An improved awareness of pathogenesis and treatment involves an enhancement of the quality of life of children and their parents.

The aim of this Special Issue is to bring up-to-date information on prevention, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of children with allergies or lung diseases.

We remain at your disposal for additional questions.

Prof. Dr. Carlo Caffarelli
Prof. Dr. Francesca Santamaria
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food allergy
  • asthma
  • anaphylaxis
  • recombinant allergen
  • allergen-specific immunotherapy
  • urticaria
  • atopic dermatitis
  • allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
  • allergy prevention
  • chronic pulmonary disorders
  • recurrent pneumonia

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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8 pages, 886 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Pediatric Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis
by Yoon Young Jang and Ji Young Ahn
Children 2021, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010003 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1991
Abstract
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non-invasive test for evaluating the degree of airway inflammation and for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of asthma. We attempted to measure FeNO levels in Korean children with asthma and determine its cutoff value for diagnosing [...] Read more.
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non-invasive test for evaluating the degree of airway inflammation and for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of asthma. We attempted to measure FeNO levels in Korean children with asthma and determine its cutoff value for diagnosing asthma. We enrolled 176 children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 18 years, who visited for the evaluation of chronic cough, shortness of breath, and wheezing. Among them, 138 patients who underwent skin prick tests or inhalation Immuno CAP (UniCAP; Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) tests for allergy testing together with a pulmonary function test were included. FeNO was measured using a NIOX MINO (Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden) instrument according to the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) guidelines. There were 29 patients with asthma, 43 with rhinitis, and 38 with asthma and allergic rhinitis. In the asthma group, FeNO levels significantly correlated with total immunoglobulin E (r = 0.572, p < 0.001), but did not show significant correlation with pulmonary function test parameters (forced vital capacity—FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second—FEV1, FEV1/FVC) or PC20 (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1). The FeNO cutoff values obtained in the asthma and asthma rhinitis groups were 16.5 ppb and 18.5 ppb, respectively. Hence, we provide a FeNO cutoff value according to the presence or absence of rhinitis in pediatric patients with asthma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology)
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Review

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9 pages, 248 KiB  
Review
Breastfeeding and Allergic Diseases: What’s New?
by Giulia Nuzzi, Maria Elisa Di Cicco and Diego Giampietro Peroni
Children 2021, 8(5), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8050330 - 24 Apr 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4347
Abstract
Asthma and other allergic disorders, such as atopic dermatitis and food allergies, are common chronic health problems in childhood. The rapid rise in the prevalence of these conditions registered over the last few decades has stressed the need to identify the modifiable risk [...] Read more.
Asthma and other allergic disorders, such as atopic dermatitis and food allergies, are common chronic health problems in childhood. The rapid rise in the prevalence of these conditions registered over the last few decades has stressed the need to identify the modifiable risk factors associated with the development of these diseases. Breast milk, recognized as the gold standard for healthy growth and development of the newborn, is one of the major factors associated with a lower incidence of allergic and infectious diseases in childhood and young adulthood. Although the underlying mechanisms for these effects are not well understood, breastfeeding leads to immune system maturation. In this narrative review, we summarize existing evidence on breastfeeding and human milk composition in relation to allergic disease prevention or development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology)
10 pages, 439 KiB  
Review
Preschool Wheezing and Gastro-Esophageal Reflux: --Causal or Casual Coincidence? Update from Literature
by Melissa Borrelli, Giuliana Ponte, Erasmo Miele, Marco Maglione, Carlo Caffarelli and Francesca Santamaria
Children 2021, 8(3), 180; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8030180 - 28 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and wheeze are two common conditions in children. GER has been advocated as a causative factor for explaining recurrent to persistent respiratory symptoms at any age. This association very often means that many children with cough, wheezing, or recurrent respiratory [...] Read more.
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and wheeze are two common conditions in children. GER has been advocated as a causative factor for explaining recurrent to persistent respiratory symptoms at any age. This association very often means that many children with cough, wheezing, or recurrent respiratory infections receive empirical anti-reflux medications. The causal relationship is still largely discussed. Compared to the large number of studies in infants and adolescents, literature on the relationship between GER and wheeze in preschool children is scarce and inconclusive. The aim of the present narrative review was to summarize what is known so far, and what the literature has proposed in the last 20 years, on the relationship between preschool wheezing and GER. In preschool children with respiratory symptoms there is a high rate of positivity of reflux testing, for this reason pH-MII testing and endoscopy are recommended. Flexible bronchoscopy may be useful to exclude anatomical abnormalities as the cause of wheezing in infancy and preschool years. Several biomarkers, as well as empirical anti-reflux therapy, have been proposed for the diagnosis of GER-related airway diseases, but the conclusions of these studies are controversial or even conflicting. There is a great need for future clinical trials to confirm or rule out the association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology)
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17 pages, 348 KiB  
Review
Childhood Obesity and Respiratory Diseases: Which Link?
by Emanuela di Palmo, Emanuele Filice, Alessandra Cavallo, Carlo Caffarelli, Giulio Maltoni, Angela Miniaci, Giampaolo Ricci and Andrea Pession
Children 2021, 8(3), 177; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8030177 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 6035
Abstract
Prevalence of childhood obesity is progressively increasing, reaching worldwide levels of 5.6% in girls and of 7.8% in boys. Several evidences showed that obesity is a major preventable risk factor and disease modifier of some respiratory conditions such as asthma and Obstructive Sleep [...] Read more.
Prevalence of childhood obesity is progressively increasing, reaching worldwide levels of 5.6% in girls and of 7.8% in boys. Several evidences showed that obesity is a major preventable risk factor and disease modifier of some respiratory conditions such as asthma and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Co-occurrence of asthma and obesity may be due to common pathogenetic factors including exposure to air pollutants and tobacco smoking, Western diet, and low Vitamin D levels. Lung growth and dysanapsis phenomenon in asthmatic obese children play a role in impaired respiratory function which appears to be different than in adults. Genes involved in both asthma and obesity have been identified, though a gene-by-environment interaction has not been properly investigated yet. The identification of modifiable environmental factors influencing gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms may change the natural history of both diseases. Another important pediatric respiratory condition associated with obesity is Sleep-Disordered Breathing (SDB), especially Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). OSAS and obesity are linked by a bidirectional causality, where the effects of one affect the other. The factors most involved in the association between OSAS and obesity are oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and gut microbiota. In OSAS pathogenesis, obesity’s role appears to be mainly due to mechanical factors leading to an increase of respiratory work at night-time. However, a causal link between obesity-related inflammatory state and OSAS pathogenesis still needs to be properly confirmed. To prevent obesity and its complications, family education and precocious lifestyle changes are critical. A healthy diet may lead to an improved quality of life in obese children suffering from respiratory diseases. The present review aimed to investigate the links between obesity, asthma and OSAS, focusing on the available evidence and looking for future research fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology)
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15 pages, 312 KiB  
Review
Difficult and Severe Asthma in Children
by Federica Porcaro, Nicola Ullmann, Annalisa Allegorico, Antonio Di Marco and Renato Cutrera
Children 2020, 7(12), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7120286 - 10 Dec 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2968
Abstract
Asthma is the most frequent chronic inflammatory disease of the lower airways affecting children, and it can still be considered a challenge for pediatricians. Although most asthmatic patients are symptom-free with standard treatments, a small percentage of them suffer from uncontrolled persistent asthma. [...] Read more.
Asthma is the most frequent chronic inflammatory disease of the lower airways affecting children, and it can still be considered a challenge for pediatricians. Although most asthmatic patients are symptom-free with standard treatments, a small percentage of them suffer from uncontrolled persistent asthma. In these children, a multidisciplinary systematic assessment, including comorbidities, treatment-related issues, environmental exposures, and psychosocial factors is needed. The identification of modifiable factors is important to differentiate children with difficult asthma from those with true severe therapy-resistant asthma. Early intervention on modifiable factors for children with difficult asthma allows for better control of asthma without the need for invasive investigation and further escalation of treatment. Otherwise, addressing a correct diagnosis of true severe therapy-resistant asthma avoids diagnostic and therapeutic delays, allowing patients to benefit from using new and advanced biological therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology)
9 pages, 782 KiB  
Review
Children’s Interstitial and Diffuse Lung Diseases (ChILD) in 2020
by Valentina Agnese Ferraro, Stefania Zanconato, Andrea Zamunaro and Silvia Carraro
Children 2020, 7(12), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7120280 - 09 Dec 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3635
Abstract
The term children interstitial lung diseases (chILD) refers to a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that diffusely affect the lung. ChILD specific to children younger than 2 years of age include diffuse developmental disorders, growth abnormalities, specific conditions of undefined etiology (neuroendocrine cell [...] Read more.
The term children interstitial lung diseases (chILD) refers to a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that diffusely affect the lung. ChILD specific to children younger than 2 years of age include diffuse developmental disorders, growth abnormalities, specific conditions of undefined etiology (neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy and pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis) and surfactant protein disorders. Clinical manifestations are highly variable, ranging from the absence of relevant symptoms to a severe onset. Most commonly, chILD presents with nonspecific respiratory signs and symptoms, such as dyspnea, polypnea, dry cough, wheezing, recurrent respiratory infections and exercise intolerance. In the diagnostic approach to a child with suspected ILD, chest high resolution computed tomography and genetic tests play a central role. Then, if the diagnosis remains uncertain, laryngotracheal-bronchoscopy and lung biopsy are needed. Pharmacological treatment is mostly empiric and based on anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drugs including corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. Despite chILD overall rarity, pediatric pulmonologists must be familiar with these diseases in order to carry out a timely diagnosis and patient treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology)
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