Special Issue "Advances in Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology"

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Integrative Pediatrics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Carlo Caffarelli
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, 43121 Parma, Italy
Interests: food allergy; asthma; anaphylaxis; recombinant allergen; allergen-specific immunotherapy; urticaria; atopic dermatitis; allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Francesca Santamaria
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Pediatric Section, Pediatric Pulmonology Unit, University of Naples “Federico II”, 80138 Napoli, Italy
Interests: pediatric chronic pulmonary disorders; recurrent pneumonia in children; pediatric severe asthma; primary ciliary dyskinesia; sleep studies

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Allergic and lung diseases are two of the most exciting fields in children. Recent understanding of pathomechanisms has led to identifying new diagnostic and therapeutic methods, while component-resolved diagnosis has changed the diagnostic approach as well as the clinical decision. New treatments, including monoclonal antibodies, an allergen specific immunotherapy, have increased the control of diseases.

In addition, pediatric patients may benefit from innovative measures that have been shown to prevent the development of allergic and lung diseases. An improved awareness of pathogenesis and treatment involves an enhancement of the quality of life of children and their parents.

The aim of this Special Issue is to bring up-to-date information on prevention, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of children with allergies or lung diseases.

We remain at your disposal for additional questions.

Prof. Dr. Carlo Caffarelli
Prof. Dr. Francesca Santamaria
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food allergy
  • asthma
  • anaphylaxis
  • recombinant allergen
  • allergen-specific immunotherapy
  • urticaria
  • atopic dermatitis
  • allergic rhinoconjunctivitis
  • allergy prevention
  • chronic pulmonary disorders
  • recurrent pneumonia

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Pediatric Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis
Children 2021, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/children8010003 - 23 Dec 2020
Abstract
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non-invasive test for evaluating the degree of airway inflammation and for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of asthma. We attempted to measure FeNO levels in Korean children with asthma and determine its cutoff value for diagnosing [...] Read more.
Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non-invasive test for evaluating the degree of airway inflammation and for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of asthma. We attempted to measure FeNO levels in Korean children with asthma and determine its cutoff value for diagnosing asthma. We enrolled 176 children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 18 years, who visited for the evaluation of chronic cough, shortness of breath, and wheezing. Among them, 138 patients who underwent skin prick tests or inhalation Immuno CAP (UniCAP; Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) tests for allergy testing together with a pulmonary function test were included. FeNO was measured using a NIOX MINO (Aerocrine AB, Solna, Sweden) instrument according to the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) guidelines. There were 29 patients with asthma, 43 with rhinitis, and 38 with asthma and allergic rhinitis. In the asthma group, FeNO levels significantly correlated with total immunoglobulin E (r = 0.572, p < 0.001), but did not show significant correlation with pulmonary function test parameters (forced vital capacity—FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second—FEV1, FEV1/FVC) or PC20 (provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1). The FeNO cutoff values obtained in the asthma and asthma rhinitis groups were 16.5 ppb and 18.5 ppb, respectively. Hence, we provide a FeNO cutoff value according to the presence or absence of rhinitis in pediatric patients with asthma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Difficult and Severe Asthma in Children
Children 2020, 7(12), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7120286 - 10 Dec 2020
Abstract
Asthma is the most frequent chronic inflammatory disease of the lower airways affecting children, and it can still be considered a challenge for pediatricians. Although most asthmatic patients are symptom-free with standard treatments, a small percentage of them suffer from uncontrolled persistent asthma. [...] Read more.
Asthma is the most frequent chronic inflammatory disease of the lower airways affecting children, and it can still be considered a challenge for pediatricians. Although most asthmatic patients are symptom-free with standard treatments, a small percentage of them suffer from uncontrolled persistent asthma. In these children, a multidisciplinary systematic assessment, including comorbidities, treatment-related issues, environmental exposures, and psychosocial factors is needed. The identification of modifiable factors is important to differentiate children with difficult asthma from those with true severe therapy-resistant asthma. Early intervention on modifiable factors for children with difficult asthma allows for better control of asthma without the need for invasive investigation and further escalation of treatment. Otherwise, addressing a correct diagnosis of true severe therapy-resistant asthma avoids diagnostic and therapeutic delays, allowing patients to benefit from using new and advanced biological therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology)
Open AccessReview
Children’s Interstitial and Diffuse Lung Diseases (ChILD) in 2020
Children 2020, 7(12), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/children7120280 - 09 Dec 2020
Abstract
The term children interstitial lung diseases (chILD) refers to a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that diffusely affect the lung. ChILD specific to children younger than 2 years of age include diffuse developmental disorders, growth abnormalities, specific conditions of undefined etiology (neuroendocrine cell [...] Read more.
The term children interstitial lung diseases (chILD) refers to a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that diffusely affect the lung. ChILD specific to children younger than 2 years of age include diffuse developmental disorders, growth abnormalities, specific conditions of undefined etiology (neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy and pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis) and surfactant protein disorders. Clinical manifestations are highly variable, ranging from the absence of relevant symptoms to a severe onset. Most commonly, chILD presents with nonspecific respiratory signs and symptoms, such as dyspnea, polypnea, dry cough, wheezing, recurrent respiratory infections and exercise intolerance. In the diagnostic approach to a child with suspected ILD, chest high resolution computed tomography and genetic tests play a central role. Then, if the diagnosis remains uncertain, laryngotracheal-bronchoscopy and lung biopsy are needed. Pharmacological treatment is mostly empiric and based on anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory drugs including corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. Despite chILD overall rarity, pediatric pulmonologists must be familiar with these diseases in order to carry out a timely diagnosis and patient treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Pediatric Allergy and Pulmonology)
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