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Special Issue "Food Allergies"

A special issue of Medicina (ISSN 1010-660X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 August 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Carlo Caffarelli

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: inflammation; allergic diseases; asthma; atopic dermatitis; allergy; allergy diagnosis; allergens; allergic sensitization; allergic rhinitis; food allergies; urticaria; anaphylaxis; skin tests
Co-Guest Editor
Prof. Giampaolo Ricci

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: allergy; allergy diagnosis; allergens; allergic asthma

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food allergy represents one of the most intriguing fields in atopic patients. Novel knowledges on pathogenesis in which the skin represents a possible route of sensitization have opened new clinical and therapeutic approaches. Component-resolved diagnosis with recombinant allergens has improved the diagnosis and also the clinical decision, even if in some cases it has increased the uncertainty about the need of prescribing adrenaline.
Pediatric patients are also the field in which we should find innovative procedures to prevent the evolution of allergic diseases toward respiratory allergic diseases. Better understanding of pathogenesis and treatment means more appropriate restricted diets and improvement in the quality of life of children and their parents.
The purpose of this Special Issue is to update knowledge on epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment in children with food allergies.

We remain at your disposal for additional questions.


Prof. Carlo Caffarelli
Prof. Giampaolo Ricci
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Medicina is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • food allergy
  • cow’s milk
  • hen’s egg
  • asthma
  • anaphylaxis
  • recombinant allergen

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Sensitizing and Allergenic Potential of the Albumin and Globulin Fractions from Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) Grains before and after an Extrusion Process
Received: 22 December 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 14 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
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Abstract
Background: The first cases of food allergy to amaranth grain have recently been published. This pseudocereal is considered hypoallergenic, and there is scarce information about the allergenic potential of amaranth proteins, either before or after food processing. Objective: To evaluate, in a mouse [...] Read more.
Background: The first cases of food allergy to amaranth grain have recently been published. This pseudocereal is considered hypoallergenic, and there is scarce information about the allergenic potential of amaranth proteins, either before or after food processing. Objective: To evaluate, in a mouse model of food allergy, the sensitizing and allergenic potential of extruded and non-extruded albumin and globulin fractions from amaranth grains. Materials and Methods: Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) flour was obtained and the albumin and globulin fractions isolated. These protein fractions were also obtained after flour extrusion. An intraperitoneal 28-day protocol was carried out to evaluate the sensitizing and allergenic potential of the proteins. The common and rarely allergenic proteins ovalbumin and potato acidic phosphatase were utilized as reference. Specific IgE and IgG antibodies were evaluated for all the proteins tested. Mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) responses were evaluated in serum samples collected after intragastric challenges with the proteins of interest. All serological evaluations were carried out using ELISA. Results: Mice were sensitized to the non-extruded albumin fraction from amaranth grains and to ovalbumin (p = 0.0045). The extrusion process of amaranth proteins abrogated the IgE responses triggered under non-extruded conditions (p = 0.0147). mMCP-1 responses were significantly detected in the group of mice sensitized to ovalbumin (p = 0.0138), but not in others. Conclusions: The non-extruded albumin fraction from amaranth has the potential to sensitize BALB/c mice, but this sensitizing potential fails to induce detectable serum levels of the mast cell degranulation marker mMCP-1 after intragastric challenges. Furthermore, the extrusion process abolished the sensitization potential of the amaranth albumins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Allergies)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Prevention of Food Allergy: The Significance of Early Introduction
Medicina 2019, 55(7), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55070323
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 25 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 30 June 2019
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Abstract
Over the last two decades, the prevalence of food allergies has registered a significant increase in Westernized societies, potentially due to changes in environmental exposure and lifestyle. The pathogenesis of food allergies is complex and includes genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. New evidence [...] Read more.
Over the last two decades, the prevalence of food allergies has registered a significant increase in Westernized societies, potentially due to changes in environmental exposure and lifestyle. The pathogenesis of food allergies is complex and includes genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. New evidence has highlighted the role of the intestinal microbiome in the maintenance of the immune tolerance to foods and the potential pathogenic role of early percutaneous exposure to allergens. The recent increase in food allergy rates has led to a reconsideration of prevention strategies for atopic diseases, mainly targeting the timing of the introduction of solid foods into infants’ diet. Early recommendation for high atopy risk infants to delay the introduction of potential food allergens, such as cow’s milk, egg, and peanut, until after the first year of life, has been rescinded, as emerging evidence has shown that these approaches are not effective in preventing food allergies. More recently, high-quality clinical trials have suggested an opposite approach, which promotes early introduction of potential food allergens into infants’ diet as a means to prevent food allergies. This evidence has led to the production of new guidelines recommending early introduction of peanut as a preventive strategy for peanut allergy. However, clinical trials investigating whether this preventive dietary approach could also apply to other types of food allergens have reported ambiguous results. This review focuses on the latest high-quality evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials examining the timing of solid food introduction as a strategy to prevent food allergies and also discusses the possible implications of early complementary feeding on both the benefits and the total duration of breastfeeding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Allergies)
Open AccessReview
Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome: Proposals for New Definitions
Medicina 2019, 55(6), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55060216
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 20 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 28 May 2019
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Abstract
Acute food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated allergy and is characterized by repetitive profuse vomiting episodes, often in association with pallor, lethargy, and diarrhea, presenting within 1–4 h from the ingestion of a triggering food. In 2017, the international consensus guidelines [...] Read more.
Acute food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated allergy and is characterized by repetitive profuse vomiting episodes, often in association with pallor, lethargy, and diarrhea, presenting within 1–4 h from the ingestion of a triggering food. In 2017, the international consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and management of FPIES were published. They cover all aspects of this syndrome, which in recent decades has attracted the attention of pediatric allergists. In particular, the consensus proposed innovative diagnostic criteria. However, the diagnosis of acute FPIES is still currently discussed because the interest in this disease is relatively recent and, above all, there are no validated panels of diagnostic criteria. We propose some ideas for reflection on the diagnostic and suspicion criteria of acute FPIES with exemplary stories of children certainly or probably suffering from acute FPIES. For example, we believe that new definitions should be produced for mild forms of FPIES, multiple forms, and those with IgE-mediated symptoms. Moreover, we propose two clinical criteria to suspect acute FPIES and to refer the child to the diagnostic oral food challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Allergies)
Open AccessReview
Food Allergies: Current and Future Treatments
Medicina 2019, 55(5), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55050120
Received: 8 April 2019 / Revised: 27 April 2019 / Accepted: 27 April 2019 / Published: 1 May 2019
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Abstract
Food allergies are an increasingly public health problem, affecting up to 10% of children and causing a significant burden on affected patients, resulting in dietary restrictions, fear of accidental ingestion and related risk of severe reactions, as well as a reduced quality of [...] Read more.
Food allergies are an increasingly public health problem, affecting up to 10% of children and causing a significant burden on affected patients, resulting in dietary restrictions, fear of accidental ingestion and related risk of severe reactions, as well as a reduced quality of life. Currently, there is no specific cure for a food allergy, so the only available management is limited to strict dietary avoidance, education on prompt recognition of symptoms, and emergency treatment of adverse reactions. Several allergen specific- and nonspecific-therapies, aiming to acquire a persistent food tolerance, are under investigation as potential treatments; however, to date, only immunotherapy has been identified as the most promising therapeutic approach for food allergy treatment. The aim of this review is to provide an updated overview on changes in the treatment landscape for food allergies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Allergies)
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