Application of Response Surface Methodology for Food Optimization Processes

A special issue of Chemosensors (ISSN 2227-9040). This special issue belongs to the section "Analytical Methods, Instrumentation and Miniaturization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2022) | Viewed by 16221

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Science, University of Vigo, E-32004 Ourense, Spain
Interests: food chemistry; food technology; bioactive compounds; analytical techniques; natural food products; natural cosmetics; emergent technologies; green processes; sustainability; bioinformatics; chemical engineering; synergy; antagonism; natural and synthetic antioxidants; mathematical modeling; biological responses; toxicology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, Food Science and Technology Faculty, University of Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain
Interests: agro-environmental; food chemistry; sustainable primary production; food quality and safety
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Co-Guest Editor
1. University of Vigo, Science Faculty – Ourense Campus. E32004 Ourense, Spain
2. Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolonia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
Interests: Agricultural Chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is an international forum for researchers in the area of analysis, evaluation, and development of solutions using mathematical tools such as response surface methodology to optimize biological, chemical, cellular, molecular, and immunological responses, among others. We search for studies describing theoretical problems and/or experimental results where molecules with relevant properties for the industrial sector are extracted/identified/quantified/concentrated in food processes systems and employed in the development of novel products in different sectors, such as nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. This Special Issue will present recent results, to identify and explore directions for future research of analytical tools to aid and guide the decision-making process, and to foster collaborations.

The applications of the chemometric tools in food analytical chemistry can be divided into two approaches: optimization of the experimental conditions during the sample preparation step and also optimization of the instrumental variables of analytical techniques. The employ of chemometric tools for the optimization of sample preparation procedures in food analysis is quite diverse. Between these, we can report analytical strategies using microwave assisted radiation, ultrasound assisted extraction, high pressure, among others. Moreover, the application of experimental designs allows to optimize instrumental variables of analytical techniques. Therefore, chemometric tools allow the determination of the critical conditions of experimental factors of the analytical methods, considering the interaction between these, with lower consumption of reagents and lower time spent during the optimization step.

This can be achieved using response surface methodology (RSM), which is a technique widely used to optimize various processes. This special issue intends to collect chemometric tools used in RSM in the optimization of different food processes such as extraction, drying, blanching, enzymatic hydrolysis and clarification, production of microbial metabolites, and formulation. The principles of RSM, its implementation steps, and different designs (full factorial design (FFD), Box-Behnken design (BBD), and central composite design (CCD)) are described. Furthermore, this work presents a comprehensive study of RSM literature recently published about the various food process fields and evaluating their RSM elements summarized in tables. Finally, the challenges and future prospects of using this statistical technique in the food industry processes are welcome. RSM is an appropriate approach and widely used to optimize food industry processes. However, some researchers are not familiar with this approach. This misusing can be attributed to perform inappropriate experimental design, inappropriate screening of independent variables, and improper selection of levels for independent variables. We have tried to address these issues in this study. In addition, this paper presents a comprehensive summary of literature recently published on optimization of food processes by using RSM. “Can RSM be utilized for optimization of all food industry processes without any limitation?” Before addressing this challenge, the principles of the approach are first presented.

We invite researchers to contribute to this special issue. Submissions should have relation to all related themes, including but not restricted to:

  • New bioactive molecules found;
  • Analysis of bioactive compounds;
  • Scientific studies assessing the properties of molecules;
  • Innovative applications in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical industry;
Prof. Dr. Miguel A. Prieto Lage
Prof. Dr. Jesus Simal-Gandara
Dr. Antía González Pereira
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Chemosensors is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Chemosensors in bioactive compounds analysis
  • Mathematical tools
  • Response surface methodology
  • Optimization processes
  • Plant food discards
  • Industrial applications

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 3460 KiB  
Article
Different Diacetyl Perception Detected through MOX Sensors in Real-Time Analysis of Beer Samples
by Aris Liboà, Dario Genzardi, Estefanía Núñez-Carmona, Sonia Carabetta, Rosa Di Sanzo, Mariateresa Russo and Veronica Sberveglieri
Chemosensors 2023, 11(2), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors11020147 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1467
Abstract
Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage; with 177.5 million kiloliters produced every year, it is one of the most relevant food products. Diacetyl is a typical byproduct of yeast metabolism that is formed during the fermentation inside breweries. The perception of this [...] Read more.
Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage; with 177.5 million kiloliters produced every year, it is one of the most relevant food products. Diacetyl is a typical byproduct of yeast metabolism that is formed during the fermentation inside breweries. The perception of this high volatile and butter-like flavor molecule varies according to the kind of beer, from a positive and highly sought characteristic to a characteristic that is avoided. Furthermore, its toxicity when inhaled has been proven. Typical diacetyl analysis includes voltametric detection and chromatographic analysis techniques. Using metal oxide sensors (MOS), this analysis can become fast and cost-effective, evaluating the differences in diacetyl concentrations through resistance variation. The S3+ (Nano Sensor Systems s.r.l.; Reggio Emilia, Italy; device can recognize volatile compounds through a tailormade array of different materials. The results can be shown on a PCA that is directly generated by the instruments and can be used to manage the productive process through an IoT integrated system. Testing different beer typology through electrochemical sensors allows for the validation of this new approach for diacetyl evaluation. The results have shown an excellent ability to detect diacetyl in different beer samples, perfectly discriminating among different concentrations. Full article
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11 pages, 1659 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Citric Acid from Citrus Peels: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimized by Response Surface Methodology
by Filipa A. Fernandes, Sandrina A. Heleno, José Pinela, Márcio Carocho, Miguel A. Prieto, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira and Lillian Barros
Chemosensors 2022, 10(7), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10070257 - 1 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3075
Abstract
The production of citrus juice generates a large quantity of by-products, which are often discarded or used for animal feed. However, several studies have shown its richness in valuable compounds, namely organic acids. Thus, this work intended to valorize orange and lime peels [...] Read more.
The production of citrus juice generates a large quantity of by-products, which are often discarded or used for animal feed. However, several studies have shown its richness in valuable compounds, namely organic acids. Thus, this work intended to valorize orange and lime peels as renewable sources of citric acid. An experimental design combining five levels of the independent variables time (2–45 min), ultrasonic power (50–500 W), and ethanol proportion (0–100%) was implemented and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction process. The UPLC-PDA analysis showed that orange peel presented a higher citric acid content than lime. For lime and orange peels, the extraction yield was maximized by sonicating at low power for 5.8 or 35.5 min, using a low ethanol proportion or only water as a solvent, respectively. Overall, optimal UAE conditions were defined for the sustainable extraction of citric acid from citrus by-products, thus contributing to its valorization and upcycling into natural food ingredients. Full article
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16 pages, 2279 KiB  
Article
Phenolic Compounds from Irradiated Olive Wastes: Optimization of the Heat-Assisted Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology
by Joana Madureira, Bruno Melgar, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Fernanda M. A. Margaça, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, Lillian Barros and Sandra Cabo Verde
Chemosensors 2021, 9(8), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9080231 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2565
Abstract
Olive pomace, an environmentally detrimental residue generated during olive oil extraction, contains bioactive compounds in demand by the food industry. To valorize this waste product a suitable yield for the extraction process is required. Heat-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from olive pomace was [...] Read more.
Olive pomace, an environmentally detrimental residue generated during olive oil extraction, contains bioactive compounds in demand by the food industry. To valorize this waste product a suitable yield for the extraction process is required. Heat-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from olive pomace was optimized by a circumscribed central composite design and response surface methodology. Our previous studies indicated that irradiation could improve 2.4-fold the extractability of the main phenolic compounds from olive pomace. The effect of extraction time, temperature and solvent concentration on the yield of polyphenols from irradiated olive pomace at 5 kGy was tested. Hydroxytyrosol-1-β-glucoside, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and caffeic acid were quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography to calculate the total polyphenol content. The optimal general conditions by RSM modeling were extraction time of 120 min, temperature of 85 °C, and 76% of ethanol in water. Using these selected conditions, 19.04 ± 1.50 mg/g dry weight, 148.88 ± 8.73 mg/g extract of total polyphenols were obtained, representing a yield of 13.7%, which was consistent with the value predicted by the model. This work demonstrated the potential of residues from the olive oil industry as a suitable alternative to obtain compounds that could be used as ingredients for the food industry. Full article
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19 pages, 1600 KiB  
Article
Development of a Natural Preservative from Chestnut Flowers: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimization and Functionality Assessment
by Ikbel ben Alaya, Eliana Pereira, Maria Inês Dias, José Pinela, Ricardo C. Calhelha, Marina Soković, Marina Kostić, Miguel A. Prieto, Faten Essid, Cristina Caleja, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira and Lillian Barros
Chemosensors 2021, 9(6), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9060141 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2665
Abstract
This study was carried out with the aim of optimizing the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from male chestnut flowers (C. sativa Mill) to develop a bioactive extract with potential to be used as a natural antioxidant preservative ingredient in the [...] Read more.
This study was carried out with the aim of optimizing the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from male chestnut flowers (C. sativa Mill) to develop a bioactive extract with potential to be used as a natural antioxidant preservative ingredient in the food industry. Time (t, 1–39 min), solvent concentration (S, 0–100%), and ultrasonic power (P, 5–500 W) were used as the independent variables for a 5-level experimental circumscribed central composite design (CCCD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds by UAE. Regarding the variables, the three showed a significant effect on the extraction of phenolic compounds. The content of phenolic compounds (including flavonoids and tannins) and the extraction yield (extract weight gravimetrically assessed) were the response criteria for the optimization. Based on the statistically validated predictive polynomial models, it was possible to reach a maximum content of phenolic compounds at the global optimal conditions of 24 ± 3 min, 259 ± 16 W, and 51 ± 7% ethanol. Additionally, pentagalloyl-glucoside and trigalloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-glucoside were the major phenolic compounds identified. The optimized extract was then analyzed for their biological properties. The bioactive potential of the chestnut flower extract obtained under these optimized conditions was evaluated using in vitro assays for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity, as well as cytotoxicity and hepatotoxicity tests. The results revealed that the enriched extract has antioxidant, antitumoral, and anti-inflammatory activities without toxicity issues. Overall, this study allowed to define the optimal conditions for the extraction of phenolic compounds from chestnuts male flowers by UAE, to obtain an enriched extract with biological properties that could be further used as a natural antioxidant ingredient with applications on functional foods. Full article
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20 pages, 1736 KiB  
Article
Red Seaweeds as a Source of Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds: Optimization of the Extraction
by Maria Carpena, Cristina Caleja, Eliana Pereira, Carla Pereira, Ana Ćirić, Marina Soković, Anton Soria-Lopez, Maria Fraga-Corral, Jesus Simal-Gandara, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, Lillian Barros and Miguel A. Prieto
Chemosensors 2021, 9(6), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors9060132 - 8 Jun 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 5018
Abstract
The present work aimed to determine the nutritional composition (ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate content and energy value), phenolic compounds, pigments and organic acids content of three typical red algae from the Northwest of Spain: Chondrus crispus, Mastocarpus stellatus, and Gigartina pistillata [...] Read more.
The present work aimed to determine the nutritional composition (ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate content and energy value), phenolic compounds, pigments and organic acids content of three typical red algae from the Northwest of Spain: Chondrus crispus, Mastocarpus stellatus, and Gigartina pistillata; as well as their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, the present work compared two extraction techniques: conventional heat assisted extraction (HAE) and high pressure assisted extraction (HPAE) to maximize the yield and the concentration of target compounds. Different independent variables were considered for the response study. Time (t) and percentage of ethanol of the solvent (S) were chosen for both techniques and temperature (T) and pressure (P) were used for HAE and HPAE, respectively. The experiments were designed following a response surface methodology (RSM) approach. The obtained results showed a similar nutritional composition between algae samples: low-fat content and high content of proteins, carbohydrates and energy. All tested algae showed good antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Finally, HEA demonstrated to be the most efficient extraction technique. This study confirms the potential of red algae to be part of the human diet as a source of non-animal protein, due to its nutritional content, phenolic profile, pigments concentration and bioactive properties, which proves that HAE is the optimum technique for the extraction maximization. Full article
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