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Article

Recovery of Citric Acid from Citrus Peels: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimized by Response Surface Methodology

1
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
2
Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Science, Faculty of Science, Universidad de Vigo, E-32004 Ourense, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Núria Serrano
Chemosensors 2022, 10(7), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10070257
Received: 9 May 2022 / Revised: 27 June 2022 / Accepted: 27 June 2022 / Published: 1 July 2022
The production of citrus juice generates a large quantity of by-products, which are often discarded or used for animal feed. However, several studies have shown its richness in valuable compounds, namely organic acids. Thus, this work intended to valorize orange and lime peels as renewable sources of citric acid. An experimental design combining five levels of the independent variables time (2–45 min), ultrasonic power (50–500 W), and ethanol proportion (0–100%) was implemented and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction process. The UPLC-PDA analysis showed that orange peel presented a higher citric acid content than lime. For lime and orange peels, the extraction yield was maximized by sonicating at low power for 5.8 or 35.5 min, using a low ethanol proportion or only water as a solvent, respectively. Overall, optimal UAE conditions were defined for the sustainable extraction of citric acid from citrus by-products, thus contributing to its valorization and upcycling into natural food ingredients. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus peels; extraction optimization; response surface methodology; citric acid; biowaste valorization citrus peels; extraction optimization; response surface methodology; citric acid; biowaste valorization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fernandes, F.A.; Heleno, S.A.; Pinela, J.; Carocho, M.; Prieto, M.A.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Barros, L. Recovery of Citric Acid from Citrus Peels: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimized by Response Surface Methodology. Chemosensors 2022, 10, 257. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10070257

AMA Style

Fernandes FA, Heleno SA, Pinela J, Carocho M, Prieto MA, Ferreira ICFR, Barros L. Recovery of Citric Acid from Citrus Peels: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimized by Response Surface Methodology. Chemosensors. 2022; 10(7):257. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10070257

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fernandes, Filipa A., Sandrina A. Heleno, José Pinela, Márcio Carocho, Miguel A. Prieto, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, and Lillian Barros. 2022. "Recovery of Citric Acid from Citrus Peels: Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Optimized by Response Surface Methodology" Chemosensors 10, no. 7: 257. https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors10070257

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