Special Issue "Centrosome"

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Organelle Function".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Rustem E. Uzbekov
Website
Guest Editor
1. Faculté de Médecine, Université de Tours, 10, Boulevard Tonnellé, 37032 Tours, France;
2. Faculty of Bioengineering and Bioinformatics, Moscow State University, Leninskye gory 73, 119992 Moscow, Russia
Interests: centrosome; centriole; cilium; flagellum; pericentriolar material (PCM); centriolar adjunct
Dr. Tomer Avidor-Reiss
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43607, USA
Interests: centriole; centrosome; cilium in sperm and male fertility

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The centrosome, its centrioles, and their surrounding pericentriolar material are amazing centers of activities in a eukaryotic cell. The striking geometrically organization, which combines the ninth-order symmetry in the transverse direction and the polarity of the organization in the longitudinal direction, makes the centriole a unique component of the cell. This ninth-order symmetry is reflected in the organization of the pericentriolar material that executes many of the functions of the centrosome, and in the internal structure of cilium that is nucleated by the centriole.

During evolution, centrioles appeared in the ancient single-celled flagellates in the form of a basal body of flagella. This original function is conserved in centrioles of multicellular organisms in the cells of the ciliary epithelium and in the flagellated spermatozoa. However, during evolutionary development, a new cellular organelle—the centrosome—was formed around centrioles, which acquired new functions that are important for the cell. The appearance of the centrosome during evolution was facilitated by organizing the pericentriolar material that nucleates and anchors the microtubule, converting them to cytoplasmic microtubules nucleation centers. The intracellular motors associated with the microtubule transport of the molecules or whole organelles within the cells and the point of convergence of these transport paths is the centrosome. It is not surprising, therefore, that many regulatory molecules are concentrated to the centrosome, where they interact with each other. In somatic cells, the first morphological feature of a cell preparing for cell division is centrioles duplication. Later, each centriole pair is located to each pole of the mitotic spindle.

All functions of the centrosome are somehow connected to the organization of the microtubule. When flagellum or cilium is formed, all of its microtubules, except for the two central ones, are the continuation of the centriolar microtubules. In the spindle, microtubules are either directly nucleated in the mitotic halo surrounding the centrioles, or are transported there by motor proteins. Many regulatory molecules that are concentrated to the centrosome region are also delivered there via the radial microtubule system, the microtubule aster, of cells.

This Special Issue of the Journal Cells aims to familiarize readers with the diverse aspects of centrosome investigations. It will collect answers from leading centrosome biology specialists to the most pressing issues related to its function, structure, and evolution.

These answers include, but are not limited to, the following:

1) What is the structural basis for ninth-order symmetry?

2) Why are there two centrioles in a diploid cell?

3) When do duplications of centrioles begin in the cell cycle?

4) What is the mechanism of the centrioles appearance?

5) How are centrioles duplication and cell cycle regulation co-regulated?

6) How is microtubule nucleation on the centrosome regulated?

7) What is the mechanism of centrosome separation before mitosis?

8) What is the role of the centrosome in the formation of the spindle and cell division?

9) What morphological variants of centrioles exist in various organisms?

10) How do the centrosomes form and change during evolution?

Prof. Rustem E. Uzbekov
Prof. Tomer Avidor-Reiss
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cells is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • centrosome
  • centriole
  • cilium
  • flagellum
  • pericentriolar material (PCM)
  • aster
  • microtubules

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
NANOG/NANOGP8 Localizes at the Centrosome and is Spatiotemporally Associated with Centriole Maturation
Cells 2020, 9(3), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9030692 - 11 Mar 2020
Abstract
NANOG is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of pluripotency and stemness. The functional paralog of NANOG, NANOGP8, differs from NANOG in only three amino acids and exhibits similar reprogramming activity. Given the transcriptional regulatory role played by NANOG, the nuclear localization [...] Read more.
NANOG is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of pluripotency and stemness. The functional paralog of NANOG, NANOGP8, differs from NANOG in only three amino acids and exhibits similar reprogramming activity. Given the transcriptional regulatory role played by NANOG, the nuclear localization of NANOG/NANOGP8 has primarily been considered to date. In this study, we investigated the intriguing extranuclear localization of NANOG and demonstrated that a substantial pool of NANOG/NANOGP8 is localized at the centrosome. Using double immunofluorescence, the colocalization of NANOG protein with pericentrin was identified by two independent anti-NANOG antibodies among 11 tumor and non-tumor cell lines. The validity of these observations was confirmed by transient expression of GFP-tagged NANOG, which also colocalized with pericentrin. Mass spectrometry of the anti-NANOG immunoprecipitated samples verified the antibody specificity and revealed the expression of both NANOG and NANOGP8, which was further confirmed by real-time PCR. Using cell fractionation, we show that a considerable amount of NANOG protein is present in the cytoplasm of RD and NTERA-2 cells. Importantly, cytoplasmic NANOG was unevenly distributed at the centrosome pair during the cell cycle and colocalized with the distal region of the mother centriole, and its presence was markedly associated with centriole maturation. Along with the finding that the centrosomal localization of NANOG/NANOGP8 was detected in various tumor and non-tumor cell types, these results provide the first evidence suggesting a common centrosome-specific role of NANOG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrosome)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Centering and Shifting of Centrosomes in Cells
Cells 2020, 9(6), 1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9061351 - 29 May 2020
Abstract
Centrosomes have a nonrandom localization in the cells: either they occupy the centroid of the zone free of the actomyosin cortex or they are shifted to the edge of the cell, where their presence is justified from a functional point of view, for [...] Read more.
Centrosomes have a nonrandom localization in the cells: either they occupy the centroid of the zone free of the actomyosin cortex or they are shifted to the edge of the cell, where their presence is justified from a functional point of view, for example, to organize additional microtubules or primary cilia. This review discusses centrosome placement options in cultured and in situ cells. It has been proven that the central arrangement of centrosomes is due mainly to the pulling microtubules forces developed by dynein located on the cell cortex and intracellular vesicles. The pushing forces from dynamic microtubules and actomyosin also contribute, although the molecular mechanisms of their action have not yet been elucidated. Centrosomal displacement is caused by external cues, depending on signaling, and is drawn through the redistribution of dynein, the asymmetrization of microtubules through the capture of their plus ends, and the redistribution of actomyosin, which, in turn, is associated with basal-apical cell polarization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrosome)
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Open AccessReview
The Enigma of Centriole Loss in the 1182-4 Cell Line
Cells 2020, 9(5), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9051300 - 23 May 2020
Abstract
The Drosophila melanogaster cell line 1182-4, which constitutively lacks centrioles, was established many years ago from haploid embryos laid by females homozygous for the maternal haploid (mh) mutation. This was the first clear example of animal cells regularly dividing in the absence of [...] Read more.
The Drosophila melanogaster cell line 1182-4, which constitutively lacks centrioles, was established many years ago from haploid embryos laid by females homozygous for the maternal haploid (mh) mutation. This was the first clear example of animal cells regularly dividing in the absence of this organelle. However, the cause of the acentriolar nature of the 1182-4 cell line remained unclear and could not be clearly assigned to a particular genetic event. Here, we detail historically the longstanding mystery of the lack of centrioles in this Drosophila cell line. Recent advances, such as the characterization of the mh gene and the genomic analysis of 1182-4 cells, allow now a better understanding of the physiology of these cells. By combining these new data, we propose three reasonable hypotheses of the genesis of this remarkable phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrosome)
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Open AccessReview
Centrioles and Ciliary Structures during Male Gametogenesis in Hexapoda: Discovery of New Models
Cells 2020, 9(3), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9030744 - 18 Mar 2020
Abstract
Centrioles are-widely conserved barrel-shaped organelles present in most organisms. They are indirectly involved in the organization of the cytoplasmic microtubules both in interphase and during the cell division by recruiting the molecules needed for microtubule nucleation. Moreover, the centrioles are required to assemble [...] Read more.
Centrioles are-widely conserved barrel-shaped organelles present in most organisms. They are indirectly involved in the organization of the cytoplasmic microtubules both in interphase and during the cell division by recruiting the molecules needed for microtubule nucleation. Moreover, the centrioles are required to assemble cilia and flagella by the direct elongation of their microtubule wall. Due to the importance of the cytoplasmic microtubules in several aspects of the cell life, any defect in centriole structure can lead to cell abnormalities that in humans may result in significant diseases. Many aspects of the centriole dynamics and function have been clarified in the last years, but little attention has been paid to the exceptions in centriole structure that occasionally appeared within the animal kingdom. Here, we focused our attention on non-canonical aspects of centriole architecture within the Hexapoda. The Hexapoda is one of the major animal groups and represents a good laboratory in which to examine the evolution and the organization of the centrioles. Although these findings represent obvious exceptions to the established rules of centriole organization, they may contribute to advance our understanding of the formation and the function of these organelles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Centrosome)
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