Special Issue "Cancers and Aging"

A special issue of Cancers (ISSN 2072-6694).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Kenneth O’Byrne

Consultant Medical Oncologist, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Translational Research Institute and Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: cancer therapeutics; drug development; ageing diseases therapeutics
Guest Editor
Dr. Derek Richard

Genome Stability Laboratory, Cancer and Ageing Research Program, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Translational Research Institute, Queensland University of Technology, Woolloongabba, Queensland 4102, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: cancer therapeutics; drug development; ageing diseases therapeutics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues

It has been estimated that by 2030 half of all global deaths will be from cancer. As we age, our risk of cancer increases and thus, as the global population ages, the prevalence of disease will increase. Severe premature ageing syndromes give us some insight into the molecular pathways governing both the ageing process and cancer risk; however, much remains to be discovered.  This special issue focuses on novel advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the cancer and ageing processes.

Dr. Derek Richard
Prof. Dr. Ken O’Byrne
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Cancers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • ageing
  • cancer
  • genomic stability
  • dna repair
  • cell cycle
  • genetic
  • cell signaling
  • syndromes

Published Papers (8 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetics of Selected Anticancer Drugs in Elderly Cancer Patients: Focus on Breast Cancer
Received: 16 September 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 29 December 2015 / Published: 2 January 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (279 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Elderly patients receiving anticancer drugs may have an increased risk to develop treatment-related toxicities compared to their younger peers. However, a potential pharmacokinetic (PK) basis for this increased risk has not consistently been established yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Background: Elderly patients receiving anticancer drugs may have an increased risk to develop treatment-related toxicities compared to their younger peers. However, a potential pharmacokinetic (PK) basis for this increased risk has not consistently been established yet. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically review the influence of age on the PK of anticancer agents frequently administered to elderly breast cancer patients. Methods: A literature search was performed using the PubMed electronic database, Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) and available drug approval reviews, as published by EMA and FDA. Publications that describe age-related PK profiles of selected anticancer drugs against breast cancer, excluding endocrine compounds, were selected and included. Results: This review presents an overview of the available data that describe the influence of increasing age on the PK of selected anticancer drugs used for the treatment of breast cancer. Conclusions: Selected published data revealed differences in the effect and magnitude of increasing age on the PK of several anticancer drugs. There may be clinically-relevant, age-related PK differences for anthracyclines and platina agents. In the majority of cases, age is not a good surrogate marker for anticancer drug PK, and the physiological state of the individual patient may better be approached by looking at organ function, Charlson Comorbidity Score or geriatric functional assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancers and Aging)
Open AccessArticle Peri-Operative Management of Older Adults with Cancer—The Roles of the Surgeon and Geriatrician
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1605-1621; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030853
Received: 24 April 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optimal surgical management of older adults with cancer starts pre-operatively. The surgeon plays a key role in the appropriate selection of patients and procedures, optimisation of their functional status prior to surgery, and provision of more intensive care for those who are at [...] Read more.
Optimal surgical management of older adults with cancer starts pre-operatively. The surgeon plays a key role in the appropriate selection of patients and procedures, optimisation of their functional status prior to surgery, and provision of more intensive care for those who are at high risk of post-operative complications. The literature, mainly based on retrospective, non-randomised studies, suggests that factors such as age, co-morbidities, pre-operative cognitive function and intensity of the surgical procedure all appear to contribute to the development of post-operative complications. Several studies have shown that a pre-operative geriatric assessment predicts post-operative mortality and morbidity as well as survival in older surgical cancer patients. Geriatricians are used to working in multidisciplinary teams that assess older patients and make individual treatment plans. However, the role of the geriatrician in the surgical oncology setting is not well established. A geriatrician could be a valuable contribution to the treatment team both in the pre-operative stage (patient assessment and pre-operative optimisation) and the post-operative stage (patient assessment and treatment of medical complications as well as discharge planning). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancers and Aging)
Open AccessArticle Breast Cancer in Elderly Caucasian Women—An Institution-Based Study of Correlation between Breast Cancer Prognostic Markers, TNM Stage, and Overall Survival
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1472-1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030846
Received: 19 April 2015 / Revised: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is still a paucity of data on how breast cancer (BC) biology influences outcomes in elderly patients. We evaluated whether ER/PR/HER2 subtype and TNM stage of invasive BC had a significant impact on overall survival (OS) in a cohort of 232 elderly [...] Read more.
There is still a paucity of data on how breast cancer (BC) biology influences outcomes in elderly patients. We evaluated whether ER/PR/HER2 subtype and TNM stage of invasive BC had a significant impact on overall survival (OS) in a cohort of 232 elderly Caucasian female patients (≥70 year old (y/o)) from our institution over a ten-year interval (January 1998–July 2008). Five ER/PR/HER2 BC subtypes classified per 2011 St. Gallen International Expert Consensus recommendations were further subclassified into three subtypes (traditionally considered “favorable” subtype-ER+/PR+/HER2-, and traditionally considered “unfavorable” BC subtypes: HER2+ and triple negative). OS was measured comparing these categories using Kaplan Meier curves and Cox regression analysis, when controlled for TNM stage. The majority of our patients (178/232 = 76.8%) were of the “favorable” BC subtype; 23.2% patients were with “unfavorable” subtype (HER2+ = 12% (28/232) and triple negative = 11.2% (26/232)). Although a trend for better OS was noted in HER2+ patients (68%) vs. 56% in ER+/PR+ HER2- or 58% in triple negative patients, “favorable” BC subtype was not significantly predictive of better OS (p = 0.285). TNM stage was predictive of OS (p < 0.001). These results are similar to our published studies on Caucasian BC patients of all ages in which ER/PR/HER2 status was not predictive of OS, irrespective of classification system used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancers and Aging)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Cancer in Women over 50 Years of Age: A Focus on Smoking
Cancers 2015, 7(1), 450-459; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7010450
Received: 2 December 2014 / Revised: 19 February 2015 / Accepted: 9 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (126 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with [...] Read more.
The increase in life expectancy worldwide has resulted in a greater prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of cancer among Brazilian women over the age of 50. A cross-sectional study with 622 women over the age of 50 was performed using a population survey. The outcome variable was the occurrence of a malignant tumor in any location. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, self-perception of health, health-related habits and morbidities. Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test and Poisson regression. The mean age of the women was 64.1 years. The prevalence of cancer was 6.8%. The main sites of occurrence of malignant tumors were the breast (31.9%), colorectal (12.7%) and skin (12.7%). In the final statistical model, the only factor associated with cancer was smoking > 15 cigarettes/day either currently or in the past: PR 2.03 (95% CI 1.06–3.89). The results have improved understanding of the prevalence and factors associated with cancer in Brazilian women aged 50 years or more. They should be encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle and pay particular attention to modifiable risk factors such as smoking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancers and Aging)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Benefits of Minimal Access Surgery in Elderly Patients with Pelvic Cancer
Received: 5 June 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 5 January 2016 / Published: 12 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (217 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An increasing proportion of patients requiring treatment for malignancy are elderly, which has created new challenges for oncologic surgeons. Aging is associated with an increasing prevalence of frailty and comorbidities that may affect the outcome of surgical procedures. By decreasing complications and shortening [...] Read more.
An increasing proportion of patients requiring treatment for malignancy are elderly, which has created new challenges for oncologic surgeons. Aging is associated with an increasing prevalence of frailty and comorbidities that may affect the outcome of surgical procedures. By decreasing complications and shortening length of hospital stay without affecting oncologic safety, surgery performed using the robot, rather than traditional laparotomy, improves the chances of a better outcome in our growing elderly populations. In addition to age, surgeons should take into account factors, such as frailty and comorbidities that correlate with outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancers and Aging)
Open AccessReview Adjuvant Systemic Therapy in Older Breast Cancer Women: Can We Optimize the Level of Care?
Cancers 2015, 7(3), 1191-1214; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7030833
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 17 June 2015 / Accepted: 26 June 2015 / Published: 3 July 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Defining optimal adjuvant treatment for older women with breast cancer is challenged by the lack of level-1 clinical evidence and the heterogeneity of the older population. Nevertheless, recommendations based on reviews of available evidence mainly from retrospective subgroup analyses and extrapolation of study [...] Read more.
Defining optimal adjuvant treatment for older women with breast cancer is challenged by the lack of level-1 clinical evidence and the heterogeneity of the older population. Nevertheless, recommendations based on reviews of available evidence mainly from retrospective subgroup analyses and extrapolation of study results from younger patients, and expert opinions, may be useful to guide treatment decisions in fit patients. But how can we properly define a “fit” older patient? In clinical practice, age by itself and clinical impression generally drive treatment decision, although the appropriateness of this judgment is under-documented. Such an approach risks overtreatment or, more frequently, undertreatment. A geriatric assessment can be valuable in oncology practice to address this issue. In this review article, we will focus only on systemic treatment and will discuss “standard” adjuvant systemic treatment strategies for fit older breast cancer patients and the role of “personalized” systemic therapy in unfit patients. The concepts conveyed in this review cannot be extrapolated to locoregional therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancers and Aging)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Effects of Age on the Detection and Management of Breast Cancer
Cancers 2015, 7(2), 908-929; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7020815
Received: 12 March 2015 / Accepted: 12 May 2015 / Published: 22 May 2015
Cited by 75 | PDF Full-text (1073 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently, breast cancer affects approximately 12% of women worldwide. While the incidence of breast cancer rises with age, a younger age at diagnosis is linked to increased mortality. We discuss age related factors affecting breast cancer diagnosis, management and treatment, exploring key concepts [...] Read more.
Currently, breast cancer affects approximately 12% of women worldwide. While the incidence of breast cancer rises with age, a younger age at diagnosis is linked to increased mortality. We discuss age related factors affecting breast cancer diagnosis, management and treatment, exploring key concepts and identifying critical areas requiring further research. We examine age as a factor in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment relating it to factors such as genetic status, breast cancer subtype, hormone factors and nodal status. We examine the effects of age as seen through the adoption of population wide breast cancer screening programs. Assessing the incidence rates of each breast cancer subtype, in the context of age, we examine the observed correlations. We explore how age affects patient’s prognosis, exploring the effects of age on stage and subtype incidence. Finally we discuss the future of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, examining the potential of emerging tests and technologies (such as microRNA) and how novel research findings are being translated into clinically relevant practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancers and Aging)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview The Place of Targeted Agents in the Treatment of Elderly Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer
Cancers 2015, 7(1), 439-449; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers7010439
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 2 March 2015 / Accepted: 6 March 2015 / Published: 13 March 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the high prevalence of colorectal cancer in a continuously aging population and the substantial advances in the treatment of metastatic disease during the past decade, the treatment of elderly patients with advanced, unresectable or metastatic colorectal cancer is a clearly unmet need. [...] Read more.
Despite the high prevalence of colorectal cancer in a continuously aging population and the substantial advances in the treatment of metastatic disease during the past decade, the treatment of elderly patients with advanced, unresectable or metastatic colorectal cancer is a clearly unmet need. Since older patients are under-represented or even excluded from randomized trials, the evidence that oncologists use as guidance is weak. However, small prospective studies, pooled analyses and observational studies show that combination approaches are safe, efficacious and feasible in the geriatric population with metastatic colorectal cancer. The use of biologic agents targeting angiogenesis and the epidermal growth factor receptor, which have been shown to clearly improve outcomes in multiple prospective trials in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, is a vital component of the aforementioned combination approaches. Herein, we review all available data concerning the management of elderly patients with these agents and underscore the differences between this age subgroup and younger patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancers and Aging)
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top