Anti-inflammatory Activity of Plant Polyphenols

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Drug Discovery, Development and Delivery".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019) | Viewed by 35316

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
Interests: botanicals; plant polyphenols; berries; gastro-intestinal inflammation; skin inflammation; bio-guided fractionation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy
Interests: botanicals; gastritis; inflammation; plant extracts; gastrointestinal epithelium
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Inflammation is the first body response to infection or injury, and is critical for both innate and adaptive immunity. It can be considered as part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. Uncontrolled inflammation often results in chronic diseases, such as gastritis, arthritis, autoimmune disorders, degenerative joint diseases, rheumatisms, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and even cancer. The inflammatory process is characterized by migration of immune cells from blood vessels to the site of inflammation, with massive release of pro-inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and oxidative agents.

The search for new strategies, able to interfere with these mechanisms by preventing a prolonged inflammation, would greatly benefit large number of subjects. In this respect, the plant kingdom has developed a multitude of secondary metabolites, many of which are recognized as useful tools for the maintenance of human health. Several botanicals from edible or medicinal plants are widely consumed all over the world for health purposes, as different types of products, including herbal medicinal products, plant food supplements, and functional foods. The purpose of this Special Issue is to collect new findings on the anti-inflammatory activity of polyphenols from plants, as individual compounds or as ingredients of extracts, focusing mostly on their effects on the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators and their mechanism of action. Both in vitro and in vivo studies are welcome.

Prof. Dr. Mario Dell'Agli
Dr. Enrico Sangiovanni
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Botanicals
  • Plant polyphenols
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • cytokines
  • transcription factors
  • chemokines
  • pro-inflammatory mediators
  • eicosanoids
  • secondary metabolites

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 191 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue: Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Plant Polyphenols
by Enrico Sangiovanni and Mario Dell’Agli
Biomedicines 2020, 8(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8030064 - 18 Mar 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2920
Abstract
Inflammation is considered the first physiological response of the human body to infection or injury, playing a critical role in both innate and adaptive immunity [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-inflammatory Activity of Plant Polyphenols)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

10 pages, 766 KiB  
Article
Beyond the Biological Effect of a Chemically Characterized Poplar Propolis: Antibacterial and Antiviral Activity and Comparison with Flurbiprofen in Cytokines Release by LPS-Stimulated Human Mononuclear Cells
by Paolo Governa, Maria Grazia Cusi, Vittoria Borgonetti, José Mauricio Sforcin, Chiara Terrosi, Giulia Baini, Elisabetta Miraldi and Marco Biagi
Biomedicines 2019, 7(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7040073 - 21 Sep 2019
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 6863
Abstract
Bee propolis, especially Euro-Asian poplar propolis, is among the most well-known natural products traditionally used to treat pharyngitis and minor wounds. The aim of this research was to investigate the pharmacological properties responsible for poplar propolis effectiveness using, for the first time, different [...] Read more.
Bee propolis, especially Euro-Asian poplar propolis, is among the most well-known natural products traditionally used to treat pharyngitis and minor wounds. The aim of this research was to investigate the pharmacological properties responsible for poplar propolis effectiveness using, for the first time, different in vitro approaches applied to a chemically characterized sample. The anti-inflammatory activity was compared with flurbiprofen by determining pro-inflammatory cytokines released by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The antibacterial activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria was assessed, as well as antiviral effects on H1N1 influenza a virus. Poplar propolis (5 and 25 µg/mL) exerted a concentration-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In this range of concentrations, propolis effect was not inferior to flurbiprofen on cytokines released by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human PBMC. Poplar propolis was found to upregulate IL-6 and IL-1β in non-stimulated PBMC. S. aureus, S. pyogenes, and S. pneumoniae were the most susceptible bacterial strains with inhibitory concentrations ranging from 156 to 625 µg/mL. A direct anti-influenza activity was not clearly seen. Effective anti-inflammatory concentrations of propolis were significantly lower than the antibacterial and antiviral ones and results suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity was the most important feature of poplar propolis linked to its rationale use in medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-inflammatory Activity of Plant Polyphenols)
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10 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Selected Green Leafy Vegetables
by K. D. P. P. Gunathilake, K. K. D. S. Ranaweera and H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe
Biomedicines 2018, 6(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6040107 - 19 Nov 2018
Cited by 152 | Viewed by 12659
Abstract
The study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the hydro methanolic extract of six leafy vegetables, namely Cassia auriculata, Passiflora edulis, Sesbania grandiflora, Olax zeylanica, Gymnema lactiferum, and Centella asiatica. The anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extracts of leafy [...] Read more.
The study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the hydro methanolic extract of six leafy vegetables, namely Cassia auriculata, Passiflora edulis, Sesbania grandiflora, Olax zeylanica, Gymnema lactiferum, and Centella asiatica. The anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extracts of leafy vegetables was evaluated using four in vitro-based assays: hemolysis inhibition, proteinase inhibition, protein denaturation inhibition, and lipoxygenase inhibition. Results showed that the percent inhibition of hemolysis from these leaf extracts (25–100 µg/mL dry weight basis (DW)) was within the range from 5.4% to 14.9%, and the leaves of P. edulis and O. zeylanica showed a significantly higher (p < 0.05) inhibition levels. Percent inhibition of protein denaturation of these leafy types was within the range of 36.0–61.0%, and the leaf extract of C. auriculata has exhibited a significantly higher (p < 0.05) inhibition level. Proteinase inhibitory activity of these leaf extracts was within the range of 20.2–25.9%. The lipoxygenase inhibition was within the range of 3.7–36.0%, and the leaf extract of G. lactiferum showed an improved ability to inhibit lipoxygenase activity. In conclusion, results revealed that all the studied leaves possess anti-inflammatory properties at different levels, and this could be due to the differences in the composition and concentration of bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-inflammatory Activity of Plant Polyphenols)
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13 pages, 2842 KiB  
Article
Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rhus coriaria Extract in a Mouse Model of Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
by Saba Khalilpour, Ghazaleh Behnammanesh, Fouad Suede, Mohammed O. Ezzat, Jayadhisan Muniandy, Yasser Tabana, Mohamed B. K. Ahamed, Ali Tamayol, Amin Malik Shah Majid, Enrico Sangiovanni, Mario Dell’Agli and Aman Shah Majid
Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020048 - 23 Apr 2018
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 6694
Abstract
Modulating oxidative stresses and inflammation can potentially prevent or alleviate the pathological conditions of diseases associated with the nervous system, including ischemic optic neuropathy. In this study we evaluated the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective activities of Rhus coriaria (R. coriaria) extract in vivo. [...] Read more.
Modulating oxidative stresses and inflammation can potentially prevent or alleviate the pathological conditions of diseases associated with the nervous system, including ischemic optic neuropathy. In this study we evaluated the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective activities of Rhus coriaria (R. coriaria) extract in vivo. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for DPPH, ABTS and β–carotene were 6.79 ± 0.009 µg/mL, 10.94 ± 0.09 µg/mL, and 6.25 ± 0.06 µg/mL, respectively. Retinal ischemia was induced by optic nerve crush injury in albino Balb/c mice. The anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of R. coriaria (ERC) and linoleic acid (LA) on ocular ischemia was monitored using Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT). Following optic nerve crush injury, the mice treated with 400 mg/kg of ERC and LA exhibited an 84.87% and 86.71% reduction of fluorescent signal (cathepsin activity) respectively. The results of this study provide strong scientific evidence for the neuroprotective activity of the ERC, identifying LA as one of the main components responsible for the effect. ERC may be useful and worthy of further development for its adjunctive utilization in the treatment of optic neuropathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-inflammatory Activity of Plant Polyphenols)
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11 pages, 938 KiB  
Article
Anti-Inflammatory and Antitumor Effects of Hydroxytyrosol but Not Oleuropein on Experimental Glioma In Vivo. A Putative Role for the Renin-Angiotensin System
by María Jesús Ramírez-Expósito and José Manuel Martínez-Martos
Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6010011 - 26 Jan 2018
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5282
Abstract
Functional roles of the angiotensin peptides of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) cascade can be analyzed through their corresponding proteolytic regulatory enzymes aspartyl aminopeptidase (ASAP), aminopeptidase A (APA), aminopeptidase B (APB), aminopeptidase N (APN) and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). These enzyme activities generate active or [...] Read more.
Functional roles of the angiotensin peptides of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) cascade can be analyzed through their corresponding proteolytic regulatory enzymes aspartyl aminopeptidase (ASAP), aminopeptidase A (APA), aminopeptidase B (APB), aminopeptidase N (APN) and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). These enzyme activities generate active or inactive angiotensin peptides that alter the ratios between their bioactive forms, regulating several important processes such as the regulation of cardiovascular functions, body water regulation, normal memory consolidation and retrieval, but also cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis or the inflammatory response. We have previously described that the treatment with hydroxytyrosol but not with oleuropein or with the mixture of both compounds led to the significant inhibition of tumor growth in an in vivo glioma model by mechanisms not only related to redox balance. Using this glioma model, here we analyze the effects of the phenolic compounds oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol in circulating RAS-regulating ASAP, APA, APN, APB and IRAP specific activities and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα to understand the relationship between the antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects of hydroxytyrosol, but not oleuropein, and the components of the RAS. We found that oleuropein increased all the activities analyzed and promoted a pro-inflammatory status, whereas hydroxytyrosol only modified ASAP and IRAP activities and promotes an anti-inflammatory status. When administrated together, oleuropein overrode the effects of hydroxytyrosol. Our results suggest a role for angiotensin III and angiotensin 1-7 in both tumor growth inhibition and anti-inflammatory response promoted by hydroxytyrosol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-inflammatory Activity of Plant Polyphenols)
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