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Beyond the Biological Effect of a Chemically Characterized Poplar Propolis: Antibacterial and Antiviral Activity and Comparison with Flurbiprofen in Cytokines Release by LPS-Stimulated Human Mononuclear Cells

1
Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Pharmacy—Department of Excellence 2018-2022, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
2
Department of Medical Biotechnologies, Microbiology Unit, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
3
Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Pharmacology and Child Health, University of Florence, 50139 Florence, Italy
4
Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University, Botucatu 18618-970, Brazil
5
Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomedicines 2019, 7(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines7040073
Received: 3 September 2019 / Revised: 17 September 2019 / Accepted: 17 September 2019 / Published: 21 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-inflammatory Activity of Plant Polyphenols)
Bee propolis, especially Euro-Asian poplar propolis, is among the most well-known natural products traditionally used to treat pharyngitis and minor wounds. The aim of this research was to investigate the pharmacological properties responsible for poplar propolis effectiveness using, for the first time, different in vitro approaches applied to a chemically characterized sample. The anti-inflammatory activity was compared with flurbiprofen by determining pro-inflammatory cytokines released by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The antibacterial activity against Gram+ and Gram- bacteria was assessed, as well as antiviral effects on H1N1 influenza a virus. Poplar propolis (5 and 25 µg/mL) exerted a concentration-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In this range of concentrations, propolis effect was not inferior to flurbiprofen on cytokines released by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human PBMC. Poplar propolis was found to upregulate IL-6 and IL-1β in non-stimulated PBMC. S. aureus, S. pyogenes, and S. pneumoniae were the most susceptible bacterial strains with inhibitory concentrations ranging from 156 to 625 µg/mL. A direct anti-influenza activity was not clearly seen. Effective anti-inflammatory concentrations of propolis were significantly lower than the antibacterial and antiviral ones and results suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity was the most important feature of poplar propolis linked to its rationale use in medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: poplar propolis; anti-inflammatory; cytokines release; flurbiprofen; flavonoids; antibacterial; influenza virus; neuraminidase poplar propolis; anti-inflammatory; cytokines release; flurbiprofen; flavonoids; antibacterial; influenza virus; neuraminidase
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Governa, P.; Cusi, M.G.; Borgonetti, V.; Sforcin, J.M.; Terrosi, C.; Baini, G.; Miraldi, E.; Biagi, M. Beyond the Biological Effect of a Chemically Characterized Poplar Propolis: Antibacterial and Antiviral Activity and Comparison with Flurbiprofen in Cytokines Release by LPS-Stimulated Human Mononuclear Cells. Biomedicines 2019, 7, 73.

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