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Biomedicines 2018, 6(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6010011

Anti-Inflammatory and Antitumor Effects of Hydroxytyrosol but Not Oleuropein on Experimental Glioma In Vivo. A Putative Role for the Renin-Angiotensin System

Experimental and Clinical Physiopathology Research Group CTS1039, Department of Health Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of Jaén, Campus Universitario Las Lagunillas, E23071 Jaén, Spain
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Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 21 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-inflammatory Activity of Plant Polyphenols)
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Abstract

Functional roles of the angiotensin peptides of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) cascade can be analyzed through their corresponding proteolytic regulatory enzymes aspartyl aminopeptidase (ASAP), aminopeptidase A (APA), aminopeptidase B (APB), aminopeptidase N (APN) and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). These enzyme activities generate active or inactive angiotensin peptides that alter the ratios between their bioactive forms, regulating several important processes such as the regulation of cardiovascular functions, body water regulation, normal memory consolidation and retrieval, but also cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis or the inflammatory response. We have previously described that the treatment with hydroxytyrosol but not with oleuropein or with the mixture of both compounds led to the significant inhibition of tumor growth in an in vivo glioma model by mechanisms not only related to redox balance. Using this glioma model, here we analyze the effects of the phenolic compounds oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol in circulating RAS-regulating ASAP, APA, APN, APB and IRAP specific activities and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα to understand the relationship between the antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects of hydroxytyrosol, but not oleuropein, and the components of the RAS. We found that oleuropein increased all the activities analyzed and promoted a pro-inflammatory status, whereas hydroxytyrosol only modified ASAP and IRAP activities and promotes an anti-inflammatory status. When administrated together, oleuropein overrode the effects of hydroxytyrosol. Our results suggest a role for angiotensin III and angiotensin 1-7 in both tumor growth inhibition and anti-inflammatory response promoted by hydroxytyrosol. View Full-Text
Keywords: oleuropein; hydroxytyrosol; glioma; C6; renin-angiotensin system; aminopeptidase; inflammation oleuropein; hydroxytyrosol; glioma; C6; renin-angiotensin system; aminopeptidase; inflammation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ramírez-Expósito, M.J.; Martínez-Martos, J.M. Anti-Inflammatory and Antitumor Effects of Hydroxytyrosol but Not Oleuropein on Experimental Glioma In Vivo. A Putative Role for the Renin-Angiotensin System. Biomedicines 2018, 6, 11.

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