MicroRNA and Its Role in Human Health

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Cell Biology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 2278

Special Issue Editor

Department of Nursing, College of Nursing, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology Taiwan, Tainan, Taiwan
Interests: rheumatic disease; microRNA expression; microRNA regulation; molecular mechanism; molecular therapy; molecular diagnosis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, noncoding single-strand RNAs that impact human health. Emerging pieces of evidence indicate that miRs can be used as diagnostic or therapeutic agents, and in studying molecular mechanisms or novel signal pathways of the diseases. MiRs bind to the 3’-untranslated regions of the specific messenger RNAs that promote their degradation by perfect complementarity or translational repression by partial complementarity. Therefore, the target genes can be upregulated or downregulated according to the expression levels of the corresponding miRs in disease models. For these reasons, it will be intriguing to decipher the regulation or expression of novel miRs with the target genes. Regulation of miRs can be achieved by many techniques, including vector-based miR precursor or sponge, agomiR or antagomiR transfer, and knock-in or -out by CRISPR. High-throughput screening by miR array provides large-scale data mining to create disease associations. In this Special Issue, we aim to include a broad spectrum of disease models in which miRs and their target genes act as diagnostic, therapeutic, and pathogenic molecules. Original research articles and reviews are welcome. We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Dr. Shih-Yao Chen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • microRNA
  • disease models
  • disease associations
  • molecular mechanism
  • molecular diagnosis
  • molecular therapy

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 1466 KiB  
Article
Differential Expression of MicroRNA (MiR-27, MiR-145) among Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) Following Neurogenic Differentiation Stimuli
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 3003; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11113003 - 09 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
This study sought to evaluate the expression of previously identified microRNAs known to regulate neuronal differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including miR-27, miR-125, miR-128, miR-135, miR-140, miR-145, miR-218 and miR-410, among dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) under conditions demonstrated to induce neuronal [...] Read more.
This study sought to evaluate the expression of previously identified microRNAs known to regulate neuronal differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including miR-27, miR-125, miR-128, miR-135, miR-140, miR-145, miR-218 and miR-410, among dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) under conditions demonstrated to induce neuronal differentiation. Using an approved protocol, n = 12 DPSCs were identified from an existing biorepository and treated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), which were previously demonstrated to induce neural differentiation markers including Sox1, Pax6 and NFM among these DPSCs. This study revealed that some microRNAs involved in the neuronal differentiation of MSCs were also differentially expressed among the DPSCs, including miR-27 and miR-145. In addition, this study also revealed that administration of bFGF and EGF was sufficient to modulate miR-27 and miR-145 expression in all of the stimulus-responsive DPSCs but not among all of the non-responsive DPSCs—suggesting that further investigation of the downstream targets of these microRNAs may be needed to fully evaluate and understand these observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA and Its Role in Human Health)
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11 pages, 672 KiB  
Communication
MicroRNAs Associated with Disability Progression and Clinical Activity in Multiple Sclerosis Patients Treated with Glatiramer Acetate
Biomedicines 2023, 11(10), 2760; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11102760 - 12 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aims to investigate the association between a preselected list of miRNAs in serum with therapeutic response to Glatiramer Acetate (GA) and with the clinical evolution of a cohort of relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aims to investigate the association between a preselected list of miRNAs in serum with therapeutic response to Glatiramer Acetate (GA) and with the clinical evolution of a cohort of relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) patients. We conducted a longitudinal study for 5 years, with cut-off points at 2 and 5 years, including 26 RRMS patients treated with GA for at least 6 months. A total of 6 miRNAs from a previous study (miR-9.5p, miR-126.3p, mir-138.5p, miR-146a.5p, miR-200c.3p, and miR-223.3p) were selected for this analysis. Clinical relapse, MRI activity, confirmed disability progression (CDP), alone or in combination (No Evidence of Disease Activity-3) (NEDA-3), and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), were studied. After multivariate regression analysis, miR-9.5p was associated with EDSS progression at 2 years (β = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.04–0.46; p = 0.047). Besides this, mean miR-138.5p values were lower in those patients with NEDA-3 at 2 years (p = 0.033), and miR-146a.5p and miR-126.3p were higher in patients with CDP progression at 2 years (p = 0.044 and p = 0.05 respectively. These results reinforce the use of microRNAs as potential biomarkers in multiple sclerosis. We will need more studies to corroborate these data and to better understand the role of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of this disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA and Its Role in Human Health)
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Review

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17 pages, 1411 KiB  
Review
Impact of Long-Lasting Environmental Factors on Regulation Mediated by the miR-34 Family
Biomedicines 2024, 12(2), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines12020424 - 12 Feb 2024
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Abstract
The present review focuses on the interactions of newly emerging environmental factors with miRNA-mediated regulation. In particular, we draw attention to the effects of phthalates, electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and a disrupted light/dark cycle. miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules with a tremendous regulatory [...] Read more.
The present review focuses on the interactions of newly emerging environmental factors with miRNA-mediated regulation. In particular, we draw attention to the effects of phthalates, electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and a disrupted light/dark cycle. miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules with a tremendous regulatory impact, which is usually executed via gene expression inhibition. To address the capacity of environmental factors to influence miRNA-mediated regulation, the miR-34 family was selected for its well-described oncostatic and neuro-modulatory properties. The expression of miR-34 is in a tissue-dependent manner to some extent under the control of the circadian system. There is experimental evidence implicating that phthalates, EMFs and the circadian system interact with the miR-34 family, in both lines of its physiological functioning. The inhibition of miR-34 expression in response to phthalates, EMFs and light contamination has been described in cancer tissue and cell lines and was associated with a decline in oncostatic miR-34a signalling (decrease in p21 expression) and a promotion of tumorigenesis (increases in Noth1, cyclin D1 and cry1 expressions). The effects of miR-34 on neural functions have also been influenced by phthalates, EMFs and a disrupted light/dark cycle. Environmental factors shifted the effects of miR-34 from beneficial to the promotion of neurodegeneration and decreased cognition. Moreover, the apoptogenic capacity of miR-34 induced via phthalate administration in the testes has been shown to negatively influence germ cell proliferation. To conclude, as the oncostatic and positive neuromodulatory functions of the miR-34 family can be strongly influenced by environmental factors, their interactions should be taken into consideration in translational medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue MicroRNA and Its Role in Human Health)
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