Biological Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery

A special issue of Bioengineering (ISSN 2306-5354). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 5671

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Community Planning and Natural Resources, Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Lulea, Sweden
Interests: acidogenic fermentation; anaerobic digestion; volatile fatty acids; biohydrogen; bioammonium; biological wastewater treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 123 Cheomdangwagi-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, Republic of Korea
Interests: microbial electrochemical technologies; electro-fermentation; heavy metals; environmental biotechnology; bioenergy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biological wastewater treatment is an essential process in the purification and recycling of water resources that is aimed at removing various contaminants from wastewater using natural biological mechanisms. Wastewater possesses an abundant amount of nutrients that may lead to significant eutrophication if discharged into water bodies without any treatment. In the past, wastewater has been considered a significant concern for both the environment and public health. However, with the development of sustainable technologies, it is now recognized as a valuable resource. Energy is required for effective biological treatment processes, and incomplete nitrification/denitrification processes can release greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide, which is more potent than CO2. Wastewater treatment plants can treat wastewater by removing nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and organic pollutants. However, it is crucial to extract nutrients and valorize the wastewater, which may be possible by combining its treatment with resource recovery.

The effectiveness of biological wastewater treatment relies on the principles of biodegradation and microbial metabolism. Through a series of well-designed processes, organic matter, nutrients, pathogens, and toxic substances present in wastewater can be efficiently degraded and removed. Oxygen availability, temperature, pH levels, retention time, and the availability of specific microorganisms are key factors that influence the performance and efficiency of biological treatment systems. The focus of the research in this area has been on learning about new communities of microorganisms; trying out new methods like biofilm reactors, activated sludge systems, and constructed wetlands; and looking into how advanced technologies like genetic engineering and nanotechnology can be used in the treatment process. There are many methods for the valorization of wastewater, such as anaerobic digestion (AD) and bioelectrogenesis. These processes harness the power of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and algae, to break down organic and inorganic pollutants and enable the extraction of bioenergy in the form of biogas (specifically biomethane, biohydrogen, and bioelectricity), which leads to the production of biobased products such as platform chemicals, volatile fatty acids, and bioammonium.

This Special Issue aims to address the advancements, challenges, and opportunities in the field of biological wastewater treatment. It welcomes interdisciplinary studies encompassing microbiology, engineering, chemistry, biotechnology, and environmental sciences. Additionally, topics such as (i) biotechnological methods to extract resources from wastewater and turn them into value-added products, (ii) the integration of processes for bioenergy and biochemical production, and (iii) nutrient recovery for the circular economy and environmental management will be considered in this SI. The goal is to contribute to the development of sustainable wastewater treatment technologies that minimize environmental impact and maximize resource recovery. By disseminating cutting-edge research, this Special Issue aims to foster collaboration and encourage the adoption of novel approaches in the field of biological wastewater treatment.

Dr. Omprakash Sarkar
Dr. J. Shanthi Sravan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Bioengineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • wastewater treatment
  • nutrient recovery
  • bioenergy generation
  • biobased products
  • anaerobic digestion
  • volatile fatty acids
  • bioammonium
  • bioelectricity

Published Papers (3 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

16 pages, 2606 KiB  
Article
Microalgae-Based Remediation of Real Textile Wastewater: Assessing Pollutant Removal and Biomass Valorisation
by Rúben A. Martins, Eva M. Salgado, Ana L. Gonçalves, Ana F. Esteves and José C. M. Pires
Bioengineering 2024, 11(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11010044 - 1 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
The textile industry generates highly contaminated wastewater. It severely threatens local ecosystems without proper treatment, significantly diminishing biodiversity near the discharge point. With rapid growth rates, microalgae offer an effective solution to mitigate the environmental impact of textile wastewater, and the generated biomass [...] Read more.
The textile industry generates highly contaminated wastewater. It severely threatens local ecosystems without proper treatment, significantly diminishing biodiversity near the discharge point. With rapid growth rates, microalgae offer an effective solution to mitigate the environmental impact of textile wastewater, and the generated biomass can be valorised. This study sets out to achieve two primary objectives: (i) to assess the removal of pollutants by Chlorella vulgaris from two distinct real textile wastewaters (without dilution) and (ii) to evaluate microalgal biomass composition for further valorisation (in a circular economy approach). Microalgae grew successfully with growth rates ranging from 0.234 ± 0.005 to 0.290 ± 0.003 d−1 and average productivities ranging from 78 ± 3 to 112.39 ± 0.07 mgDW L−1 d−1. All cultures demonstrated a significant reduction in nutrient concentrations for values below the legal limits for discharge, except for COD in effluent 2. Furthermore, the pigment concentration in the culture increased during textile effluent treatment, presenting a distinct advantage over conventional ones due to the economic value of produced biomass and pigments. This study underscores the promise of microalgae in textile wastewater treatment and provides valuable insights into their role in addressing the environmental challenges the textile industry poses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

32 pages, 1481 KiB  
Review
Green Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Silver Nanoparticles Using Bioflocculant: A Review
by Nkanyiso C. Nkosi, Albertus K. Basson, Zuzingcebo G. Ntombela, Nkosinathi G. Dlamini and Rajasekhar V. S. R. Pullabhotla
Bioengineering 2024, 11(5), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11050492 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Nanotechnology has emerged as an effective means of removing contaminants from water. Traditional techniques for producing nanoparticles, such as physical methods (condensation and evaporation) and chemical methods (oxidation and reduction), have demonstrated high efficiency. However, these methods come with certain drawbacks, including the [...] Read more.
Nanotechnology has emerged as an effective means of removing contaminants from water. Traditional techniques for producing nanoparticles, such as physical methods (condensation and evaporation) and chemical methods (oxidation and reduction), have demonstrated high efficiency. However, these methods come with certain drawbacks, including the significant energy requirement and the use of costly and hazardous chemicals that may cause nanoparticles to adhere to surfaces. To address these limitations, researchers are actively developing alternative procedures that are cost-effective, environmentally safe, and user-friendly. One promising approach involves biological synthesis, which utilizes plants or microorganisms as reducing and capping agents. This review discusses various methods of nanoparticle synthesis, with a focus on biological synthesis using naturally occurring bioflocculants from microorganisms. Bioflocculants offer several advantages, including harmlessness, biodegradability, and minimal secondary pollution. Furthermore, the review covers the characterization of synthesized nanoparticles, their antimicrobial activity, and cytotoxicity. Additionally, it explores the utilization of these NPs in water purification and dye removal processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 1429 KiB  
Review
Advances in Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes: Focus on Low-Carbon Energy and Resource Recovery in Biorefinery Context
by J. Shanthi Sravan, Leonidas Matsakas and Omprakash Sarkar
Bioengineering 2024, 11(3), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering11030281 - 16 Mar 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2451
Abstract
Advancements in biological wastewater treatment with sustainable and circularity approaches have a wide scope of application. Biological wastewater treatment is widely used to remove/recover organic pollutants and nutrients from a diverse wastewater spectrum. However, conventional biological processes face challenges, such as low efficiency, [...] Read more.
Advancements in biological wastewater treatment with sustainable and circularity approaches have a wide scope of application. Biological wastewater treatment is widely used to remove/recover organic pollutants and nutrients from a diverse wastewater spectrum. However, conventional biological processes face challenges, such as low efficiency, high energy consumption, and the generation of excess sludge. To overcome these limitations, integrated strategies that combine biological treatment with other physical, chemical, or biological methods have been developed and applied in recent years. This review emphasizes the recent advances in integrated strategies for biological wastewater treatment, focusing on their mechanisms, benefits, challenges, and prospects. The review also discusses the potential applications of integrated strategies for diverse wastewater treatment towards green energy and resource recovery, along with low-carbon fuel production. Biological treatment methods, viz., bioremediation, electro-coagulation, electro-flocculation, electro-Fenton, advanced oxidation, electro-oxidation, bioelectrochemical systems, and photo-remediation, are summarized with respect to non-genetically modified metabolic reactions. Different conducting materials (CMs) play a significant role in mass/charge transfer metabolic processes and aid in enhancing fermentation rates. Carbon, metal, and nano-based CMs hybridization in different processes provide favorable conditions to the fermentative biocatalyst and trigger their activity towards overcoming the limitations of the conventional process. The emerging field of nanotechnology provides novel additional opportunities to surmount the constraints of conventional process for enhanced waste remediation and resource valorization. Holistically, integrated strategies are promising alternatives for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of biological wastewater treatment while also contributing to the circular economy and environmental protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop