Special Issue "Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment"

A special issue of Behavioral Sciences (ISSN 2076-328X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 July 2015).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Andrew Doan
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Mental Health, Naval Medical Center San Diego, Bldg 2, 34800 Bob Wilson Drive, San Diego, CA 92134, USA
Interests: behavioral addictions; Internet gaming disorder; Internet addiction disorder; pornography addiction; involvement of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal and endocrine axes in behavioral addictions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue addresses current methods of assessing and treating addictive behaviors, such as alcohol and substance abuse disorders, gambling disorder, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction disorder, pornography addiction, and addictive uses of technology and mobile devices. The most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) acknowledges only gambling disorder and alcohol and substance abuse disorders as formal diagnoses. Additionally, the DSM-5 lists Internet gaming disorder in the appendix as a disorder requiring additional research and future consideration for inclusion in the DSM. This Special Issue aims to assemble the current research and academic papers addressing the assessment and treatment of addictive behaviors. Articles appropriate for this issue include theoretical critiques, literature reviews, empirical studies, and case reports.

Prof. Dr. Andrew Doan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Behavioral Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


Keywords

  • addictions
  • alcohol
  • substances
  • gambling
  • Internet
  • video games
  • pornography
  • cell phones
  • technology

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Is Internet Pornography Causing Sexual Dysfunctions? A Review with Clinical Reports
Behav. Sci. 2016, 6(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs6030017 - 05 Aug 2016
Cited by 46Correction
Abstract
Traditional factors that once explained men’s sexual difficulties appear insufficient to account for the sharp rise in erectile dysfunction, delayed ejaculation, decreased sexual satisfaction, and diminished libido during partnered sex in men under 40. This review (1) considers data from multiple domains, e.g., [...] Read more.
Traditional factors that once explained men’s sexual difficulties appear insufficient to account for the sharp rise in erectile dysfunction, delayed ejaculation, decreased sexual satisfaction, and diminished libido during partnered sex in men under 40. This review (1) considers data from multiple domains, e.g., clinical, biological (addiction/urology), psychological (sexual conditioning), sociological; and (2) presents a series of clinical reports, all with the aim of proposing a possible direction for future research of this phenomenon. Alterations to the brain's motivational system are explored as a possible etiology underlying pornography-related sexual dysfunctions. This review also considers evidence that Internet pornography’s unique properties (limitless novelty, potential for easy escalation to more extreme material, video format, etc.) may be potent enough to condition sexual arousal to aspects of Internet pornography use that do not readily transition to real-life partners, such that sex with desired partners may not register as meeting expectations and arousal declines. Clinical reports suggest that terminating Internet pornography use is sometimes sufficient to reverse negative effects, underscoring the need for extensive investigation using methodologies that have subjects remove the variable of Internet pornography use. In the interim, a simple diagnostic protocol for assessing patients with porn-induced sexual dysfunction is put forth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)
Open AccessArticle
Testing the Predictive Validity and Construct of Pathological Video Game Use
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 602-625; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5040602 - 15 Dec 2015
Cited by 5
Abstract
Three studies assessed the construct of pathological video game use and tested its predictive validity. Replicating previous research, Study 1 produced evidence of convergent validity in 8th and 9th graders (N = 607) classified as pathological gamers. Study 2 replicated and extended [...] Read more.
Three studies assessed the construct of pathological video game use and tested its predictive validity. Replicating previous research, Study 1 produced evidence of convergent validity in 8th and 9th graders (N = 607) classified as pathological gamers. Study 2 replicated and extended the findings of Study 1 with college undergraduates (N = 504). Predictive validity was established in Study 3 by measuring cue reactivity to video games in college undergraduates (N = 254), such that pathological gamers were more emotionally reactive to and provided higher subjective appraisals of video games than non-pathological gamers and non-gamers. The three studies converged to show that pathological video game use seems similar to other addictions in its patterns of correlations with other constructs. Conceptual and definitional aspects of Internet Gaming Disorder are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)
Open AccessArticle
Impulsivity and Stillness: NADA, Pharmaceuticals, and Psychotherapy in Substance Use and Other DSM 5 Disorders
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 537-546; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5040537 - 26 Nov 2015
Cited by 5
Abstract
Pharmaceuticals and psychotherapy are commonly used in the management of impulsivity. The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol is an adjunctive therapy that involves the bilateral insertion of 1 to 5 predetermined ear needle points. One of the main benefits reported by patients, [...] Read more.
Pharmaceuticals and psychotherapy are commonly used in the management of impulsivity. The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) protocol is an adjunctive therapy that involves the bilateral insertion of 1 to 5 predetermined ear needle points. One of the main benefits reported by patients, providers, and programs utilizing NADA is the sense of stillness, centering, and well-being. The induction of this attitude is seen as contributing to improved clinical outcomes including engagement and retention. The attitude of stillness is also suggestive of a pathway to mitigating impulsivity. Impulsivity is associated with substance use disorders and other DSM 5 diagnoses. Impulsivity has characteristics that are manifested clinically in behaviors such as disinhibition, poor self-control, lack of deliberation, thrill seeking, risk-taking. NADA holds promise as a useful treatment adjunct in the comprehensive management of disorders for which impulsivity is a prominent component. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
The Key to Individualized Addiction Treatment is Comprehensive Assessment and Monitoring of Symptoms and Behavioral Change
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 477-495; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5040477 - 30 Oct 2015
Abstract
Modern health services now strive for individualized treatment. This approach has been enabled by the increase in knowledge derived from neuroscience and genomics. Substance use disorders are no exception to individualized treatment even though there are no gene-specific medications yet available. What is [...] Read more.
Modern health services now strive for individualized treatment. This approach has been enabled by the increase in knowledge derived from neuroscience and genomics. Substance use disorders are no exception to individualized treatment even though there are no gene-specific medications yet available. What is available is the ability to quickly and precisely assess and monitor biopsychosocial variables known to vary during addiction recovery and which place addicts at increased risk of relapse. Monitoring a broad spectrum of biopsychosocial health enables providers to address diverse genome-specific changes that might trigger withdrawal from treatment or recovery relapse in time to prevent that from occurring. This paper describes modern measurement tools contained in the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the NIH Toolbox and suggests how they might be applied to support recovery from alcohol and other substance use disorders in both pharmacological and abstinence-oriented modalities of care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle
Adolescent Alcoholism and Drug Addiction: The Experience of Parents
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 461-476; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5040461 - 29 Oct 2015
Cited by 11
Abstract
Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence [...] Read more.
Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence on parenting and family functioning; little attention has been paid to the parents’ experience. This qualitative study looks at the parental perspective as they attempted to adapt and cope with substance dependency in their teenage children. The research looks into family life and adds to family functioning knowledge when the identified client is a youth as opposed to an adult family member. Thirty-one adult caregivers of 21 teenagers were interviewed, resulting in eight significant themes: (1) finding out about the substance dependence problem; (2) experiences as the problems escalated; (3) looking for explanations other than substance dependence; (4) connecting to the parent’s own history; (5) trying to cope; (6) challenges of getting help; (7) impact on siblings; and (8) choosing long-term rehabilitation. Implications of this research for clinical practice are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)
Open AccessArticle
Recorded Behavior as a Valuable Resource for Diagnostics in Mobile Phone Addiction: Evidence from Psychoinformatics
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(4), 434-442; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5040434 - 19 Oct 2015
Cited by 56
Abstract
Psychologists and psychiatrists commonly rely on self-reports or interviews to diagnose or treat behavioral addictions. The present study introduces a novel source of data: recordings of the actual problem behavior under investigation. A total of N = 58 participants were asked to fill [...] Read more.
Psychologists and psychiatrists commonly rely on self-reports or interviews to diagnose or treat behavioral addictions. The present study introduces a novel source of data: recordings of the actual problem behavior under investigation. A total of N = 58 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring problematic mobile phone behavior featuring several questions on weekly phone usage. After filling in the questionnaire, all participants received an application to be installed on their smartphones, which recorded their phone usage for five weeks. The analyses revealed that weekly phone usage in hours was overestimated; in contrast, numbers of call and text message related variables were underestimated. Importantly, several associations between actual usage and being addicted to mobile phones could be derived exclusively from the recorded behavior, but not from self-report variables. The study demonstrates the potential benefit to include methods of psychoinformatics in the diagnosis and treatment of problematic mobile phone use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)
Open AccessArticle
Refining Measures for Assessing Problematic/Addictive Digital Gaming Use in Clinical and Research Settings
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(3), 372-383; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5030372 - 12 Aug 2015
Cited by 2
Abstract
Problematic or addictive digital gaming (including all types of electronic devices) can and has had extremely adverse impacts on the lives of many individuals across the world. The understanding of this phenomenon, and the effectiveness of treatment design and monitoring, can be improved [...] Read more.
Problematic or addictive digital gaming (including all types of electronic devices) can and has had extremely adverse impacts on the lives of many individuals across the world. The understanding of this phenomenon, and the effectiveness of treatment design and monitoring, can be improved considerably by continuing refinement of assessment tools. The present article briefly overviews tools designed to measure problematic or addictive use of digital gaming, the vast majority of which are founded on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for other addictive disorders, such as pathological gambling. Although adapting DSM content and strategies for measuring problematic digital gaming has proven valuable, there are some potential issues with this approach. We discuss the strengths and limitations of current methods for measuring problematic or addictive gaming and provide various recommendations that might help in enhancing or supplementing existing tools, or in developing new and even more effective tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)
Open AccessArticle
The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(3), 341-352; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5030341 - 28 Jul 2015
Cited by 9
Abstract
The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium [...] Read more.
The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)
Open AccessCommunication
Problematic Game Play: The Diagnostic Value of Playing Motives, Passion, and Playing Time in Men
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(2), 203-213; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5020203 - 30 Apr 2015
Cited by 8
Abstract
Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM—not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of [...] Read more.
Internet gaming disorder is currently listed in the DSM—not in order to diagnose such a disorder but to encourage research to investigate this phenomenon. Even whether it is still questionable if Internet Gaming Disorder exists and can be judged as a form of addiction, problematic game play is already very well researched to cause problems in daily life. Approaches trying to predict problematic tendencies in digital game play have mainly focused on playing time as a diagnostic criterion. However, motives to engage in digital game play and obsessive passion for game play have also been found to predict problematic game play but have not yet been investigated together. The present study aims at (1) analyzing if obsessive passion can be distinguished from problematic game play as separate concepts, and (2) testing motives of game play, passion, and playing time for their predictive values for problematic tendencies. We found (N = 99 males, Age: M = 22.80, SD = 3.81) that obsessive passion can be conceptually separated from problematic game play. In addition, the results suggest that compared to solely playing time immersion as playing motive and obsessive passion have added predictive value for problematic game play. The implications focus on broadening the criteria in order to diagnose problematic playing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update
Behav. Sci. 2015, 5(3), 388-433; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs5030388 - 18 Sep 2015
Cited by 68
Abstract
Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar [...] Read more.
Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addictive Behaviors: Assessment and Treatment)
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