Special Issue "Vertical Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Coastal Zone"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Meteorology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Anna Maria Sempreviva
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Wind Energy, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Lyngby, Denmark
Interests: coastal boundary layer meteorology; energy meteorology; internal boundary layers; marine aerosols impact on atmospheric turbulence
Dr. Xiaoli Larsén
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Wind Energy, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Lyngby, Denmark
Interests: atmospheric turbulence; marine boundary layer; air–sea interaction; mesoscale wind–wave coupled modelling; extreme wind modelling; wind resource assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Accurate calculations of vertical profiles of atmospheric variables in coastal areas are crucial for climate, environmental, and energy research and applications. It is, however, a challenging task, on both sides of the coastline, onshore or offshore. The abrupt horizontal change of the mechanical and thermal surface characteristics causes the development of an internal boundary layer (IBL) for both offshore and onshore flows. The IBL introduces a vertical discontinuity in the atmospheric properties, and the IBL grows, as a function of stability conditions, until it merges with the atmospheric boundary layer at a certain distance from the coast. The daily cycle plays an important role in the onshore stability condition, though such an effect may be minor for offshore conditions. Some coastal areas are also favoured by special coastal phenomena such as sea breeze, land breeze, coastal jet, and low-level jet. Offshore in the coastal zones, the shoaling and breaking of waves introduces an air–sea exchange of momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat, as well as sea spray that affects the vertical distribution of a range of most relevant parameters such as wind, temperature, humidity, sea salt, and CO2 in the atmospheric boundary layer.

These topics have been the research focus for decades and further efforts are still needed. In this Special Issue, we invite theoretical, experimental, and modelling studies on atmospheric parameters in coastal areas, particularly on the dynamics related to their distribution with height in the atmospheric boundary layer. The context could be environmental, climate and weather, and renewable energies.

We welcome studies covering atmospheric phenomena of a wide range of spatial scales, from synoptical to microscale, including, but not limited to, the following:

  • Observations, including in-situ measurements, ground-based and space-borne remote sensing techniques (e.g., scatterometers and synthetic aperture radar), or operational campaigns
  • Studies on model uncertainty for different parameterization schemes
  • Studies of the dynamics related to profiles of wind speed and direction, temperature, and sea spray in the transition zone/period in the onshore/offshore flow;
  • Studies of low-level jet, coastal jets, sea breezes and land breezes, modelling and/or measurements.
  • Studies on the effect of the coastal atmospheric phenomena on renewable energy production;
  • Studies of air–sea interactions of momentum, heat and gases, through measurements and/or wind–wave coupled modelling.

Dr. Anna Maria Sempreviva
Dr. Xiaoli Larsén
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • coastal areas
  • vertical profiles
  • internal boundary layers
  • experimental studies
  • modelling studies
  • renewable energy production
  • climate
  • environmental studies
  • remote sensing

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Turbulence, Low-Level Jets, and Waves in the Tyrrhenian Coastal Zone as Shown by Sodar
Atmosphere 2020, 11(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11010028 - 27 Dec 2019
Abstract
The characteristics of the vertical and temporal structure of the coastal atmospheric boundary layer are variable for different sites and are often not well known. Continuous monitoring of the atmospheric boundary layer was carried out close to the Tyrrhenian Sea, near Tarquinia (Italy), [...] Read more.
The characteristics of the vertical and temporal structure of the coastal atmospheric boundary layer are variable for different sites and are often not well known. Continuous monitoring of the atmospheric boundary layer was carried out close to the Tyrrhenian Sea, near Tarquinia (Italy), in 2015–2017. A ground-based remote sensing instrument (triaxial Doppler sodar) and in situ sensors (meteorological station, ultrasonic anemometer/thermometer, and net radiometer) were used to measure vertical wind velocity profiles, the thermal structure of the atmosphere, the height of the turbulent layer, turbulent heat and momentum fluxes in the surface layer, atmospheric radiation, and precipitation. Diurnal alternation of the atmospheric stability types governed by the solar cycle coupled with local sea/land breeze circulation processes is found to be variable and is classified into several main regimes. Low-level jets (LLJ) at heights of 100–300 m above the surface with maximum wind speed in the range of 5–18 m s−1 occur in land breezes, both during the night and early in the morning. Empirical relationships between the LLJ core wind speed characteristics and those near the surface are obtained. Two separated turbulent sub-layers, both below and above the LLJ core, are often observed, with the upper layer extending up to 400–600 m. Kelvin–Helmholtz billows associated with internal gravity–shear waves occurring in these layers present opposite slopes, in correspondence with the sign of vertical wind speed gradients. Our observational results provide a basis for the further development of theoretical and modelling approaches, taking into account the wave processes occurring in the atmospheric boundary layer at the land–sea interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vertical Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Coastal Zone)
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Open AccessArticle
Sodar Observation of the ABL Structure and Waves over the Black Sea Offshore Site
Atmosphere 2019, 10(12), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10120811 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sodar investigations of the breeze circulation and vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) were carried out in the coastal zone of the Black Sea for ten days in June 2015. The measurements were preformed at a stationary oceanographic platform located 450 [...] Read more.
Sodar investigations of the breeze circulation and vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) were carried out in the coastal zone of the Black Sea for ten days in June 2015. The measurements were preformed at a stationary oceanographic platform located 450 m from the southern coast of the Crimean Peninsula. Complex measurements of the ABL vertical structure were performed using the three-axis Doppler minisodar Latan-3m. Auxiliary measurements were provided by a temperature profiler and two automatic weather stations. During the campaign, the weather was mostly fair with a pronounced daily cycle. Characteristic features of breeze circulation in the studied area, primarily determined by the adjacent mountains, were revealed. Wave structures with amplitudes of up to 100 m were regularly observed by sodar over the sea surface. Various forms of Kelvin–Helmholtz billows, observed at the interface between the sea breeze and the return flow aloft, are described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vertical Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Coastal Zone)
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of the Two-Way Coupling between Wind Wave and Atmospheric Models on the Lower Atmosphere over the North Sea
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070386 - 11 Jul 2019
Abstract
The effects of coupling between the atmospheric model of the Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling-Climate Limited-area Modelling (CCLM) and the wind wave model (WAM) on the lower atmosphere within the North Sea area are studied. Due to the two-way coupling between the models, the [...] Read more.
The effects of coupling between the atmospheric model of the Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling-Climate Limited-area Modelling (CCLM) and the wind wave model (WAM) on the lower atmosphere within the North Sea area are studied. Due to the two-way coupling between the models, the influences of wind waves and the atmosphere on each other can be determined. This two-way coupling between these models is enabled through the introduction of wave-induced drag into CCLM and updated winds into WAM. As a result of wave-induced drag, different atmospheric parameters are either directly or indirectly influenced by the wave conditions. The largest differences between the coupled and reference model simulation are found during storm events as well as in areas of steep gradients in the mean sea level pressure, wind speed or temperature. In the two-way coupled simulation, the position and strength of these gradients vary, compared to the reference simulation, leading to differences that spread throughout the entire planetary boundary layer and outside the coupled model area, thereby influencing the atmosphere over land and ocean, although not coupled to the wave model. Ultimately, the results of both model simulations are assessed against in situ and satellite measurements, with a better general performance of the two-way coupled simulation with respect to the observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vertical Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Coastal Zone)
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Open AccessArticle
Measurements and Modelling of Offshore Wind Profiles in a Semi-Enclosed Sea
Atmosphere 2019, 10(4), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10040194 - 10 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A conically scanning, continuous-wave LIDAR is placed on an island in the central Baltic Sea with large open-water fetch, providing wind and turbulence profiles up to 300 m height. LIDAR and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) profiles from one year are used to [...] Read more.
A conically scanning, continuous-wave LIDAR is placed on an island in the central Baltic Sea with large open-water fetch, providing wind and turbulence profiles up to 300 m height. LIDAR and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) profiles from one year are used to characterize the marine boundary layer, at the same time performing an evaluation of the WRF model against LIDAR measurements with a focus on low-level jet representation. A good agreement is found between the average wind speed profile in WRF and LIDAR, with the largest bias occurring during stable conditions. The LLJ frequency is highest in May with frequency of occurrence ranging between 18% and 27% depending on the method of detection. Most of the LLJs occur during nighttime, indicating that most of them do not have local origin. For cases with simultaneous LLJs in both data sets the WRF agrees well with the LIDAR. In many cases, however, the LLJ is misplaced in time or space in the WRF simulations compared to the LIDAR. This shows that models still must be improved to capture mesoscale effects in the coastal zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vertical Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Coastal Zone)
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