Next Article in Journal
Historical Winter Storm Atlas for Germany (GeWiSA)
Previous Article in Journal
Results of Three Years of Ambient Air Monitoring Near a Petroleum Refinery in Richmond, California, USA
Previous Article in Special Issue
Measurements and Modelling of Offshore Wind Profiles in a Semi-Enclosed Sea
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

The Impact of the Two-Way Coupling between Wind Wave and Atmospheric Models on the Lower Atmosphere over the North Sea

Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 386;
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 9 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vertical Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in Coastal Zone)
PDF [23212 KB, uploaded 12 July 2019]


The effects of coupling between the atmospheric model of the Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling-Climate Limited-area Modelling (CCLM) and the wind wave model (WAM) on the lower atmosphere within the North Sea area are studied. Due to the two-way coupling between the models, the influences of wind waves and the atmosphere on each other can be determined. This two-way coupling between these models is enabled through the introduction of wave-induced drag into CCLM and updated winds into WAM. As a result of wave-induced drag, different atmospheric parameters are either directly or indirectly influenced by the wave conditions. The largest differences between the coupled and reference model simulation are found during storm events as well as in areas of steep gradients in the mean sea level pressure, wind speed or temperature. In the two-way coupled simulation, the position and strength of these gradients vary, compared to the reference simulation, leading to differences that spread throughout the entire planetary boundary layer and outside the coupled model area, thereby influencing the atmosphere over land and ocean, although not coupled to the wave model. Ultimately, the results of both model simulations are assessed against in situ and satellite measurements, with a better general performance of the two-way coupled simulation with respect to the observations. View Full-Text
Keywords: coupled modelling; atmosphere–wave interaction; boundary layer; sentinel data coupled modelling; atmosphere–wave interaction; boundary layer; sentinel data

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wiese, A.; Stanev, E.; Koch, W.; Behrens, A.; Geyer, B.; Staneva, J. The Impact of the Two-Way Coupling between Wind Wave and Atmospheric Models on the Lower Atmosphere over the North Sea. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 386.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Atmosphere EISSN 2073-4433 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top