Special Issue "Ambient Aerosol Measurements in Different Environments"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Aerosols".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Aikaterini Bougiatioti
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Environmental Research & Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, I. Metaxa & Vas. Pavlou, P. Penteli, GR-15236, Greece
Interests: air quality; particulate matter; aerosol-Cloud-climate interactions; Cloud condensation nuclei; source apportionment; aerosol impact on climate & health
Dr. Evangelia Kostenidou
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratoire Chimie Environnement, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Marseille, 13331, France
Interests: air pollution; atmospheric aerosol; volatile organic compounds; aerosol volatility; source apportionment, biogenic/anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol, vehicle emissions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

PM in the atmosphere has diverse natural and anthropogenic sources and is a complex, heterogeneous mixture. Its size and chemical composition can change in time and space, depending on emission sources and atmospheric and meteorological conditions. Aerosols can arise from natural sources, including dust, pollen and volcanic ash, or anthropogenic sources including fuel combustion, incineration, domestic heating and transport. Depending on the environment in question, aerosol chemical composition, size, shape and vertical distribution may vary considerably. Therefore the physicochemical characterization of aerosol in different types of environments is of utmost importance, contributing to air quality, public health and the environment.

For this Special Issue, we aim to compile high-quality research and provide the community a valuable resource on the study of ambient aerosol in different environments. Such contributions may contain recent development and application of novel instrumentation in the field. Alternatively, authors can contribute manuscripts that focus on specific measurement techniques used at different sites for monitoring purposes and/or during intensive measurement campaigns. Finally, remote sensing, in-situ as well as modelling studies vs. ambient measurements comparisons are also welcome contributions to this Special Issue. If in doubt about the suitability of the research for the SI, potential authors are invited to discuss the idea with the Guest Editor before preparing the paper.

Dr. Aikaterini Bougiatioti
Dr. Evangelia Kostenidou
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Aerosol properties
  • Ambient measurements and field studies
  • Air quality
  • Emission sources
  • Physicochemical characteristics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Aerosol Particle and Black Carbon Emission Factors of Vehicular Fleet in Manila, Philippines
Atmosphere 2019, 10(10), 603; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10100603 - 04 Oct 2019
Abstract
Poor air quality has been identified as one of the main risks to human health, especially in developing regions, where the information on physical chemical properties of air pollutants is lacking. To bridge this gap, we conducted an intensive measurement campaign in Manila, [...] Read more.
Poor air quality has been identified as one of the main risks to human health, especially in developing regions, where the information on physical chemical properties of air pollutants is lacking. To bridge this gap, we conducted an intensive measurement campaign in Manila, Philippines to determine the emission factors (EFs) of particle number (PN) and equivalent black carbon (BC). The focus was on public utility jeepneys (PUJ), equipped with old technology diesel engines, widely used for public transportation. The EFs were determined by aerosol physical measurements, fleet information, and modeled dilution using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The results show that average vehicle EFs of PN and BC in Manila is up to two orders of magnitude higher than European emission standards. Furthermore, a PUJ emits up to seven times more than a light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and contribute to more than 60% of BC emission in Manila. Unfortunately, traffic restrictions for heavy-duty vehicles do not apply to PUJs. The results presented in this work provide a framework to help support targeted traffic interventions to improve urban air quality not only in Manila, but also in other countries with a similar fleet composed of old-technology vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Aerosol Measurements in Different Environments)
Open AccessArticle
Use of Low-Cost Ambient Particulate Sensors in Nablus, Palestine with Application to the Assessment of Regional Dust Storms
Atmosphere 2019, 10(9), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090539 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
Few air pollutant studies within the Palestinian territories have been reported in the literature. In March–April and May–June of 2018, three low-cost, locally calibrated particulate monitors (AirU’s) were deployed at different elevations and source areas throughout the city of Nablus in Northern West [...] Read more.
Few air pollutant studies within the Palestinian territories have been reported in the literature. In March–April and May–June of 2018, three low-cost, locally calibrated particulate monitors (AirU’s) were deployed at different elevations and source areas throughout the city of Nablus in Northern West Bank, Palestine. During each of the three-week periods, high but site-to-site similar particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and less than 10 µm (PM10) concentrations were observed. The PM2.5 concentrations at the three sampling locations and during both sampling periods averaged 38.2 ± 3.6 µg/m3, well above the World Health Organization’s (WHO) 24 h guidelines. Likewise, the PM10 concentrations exceeded or were just below the WHO’s 24 h guidelines, averaging 48.5 ± 4.3 µg/m3. During both periods, short episodes were identified in which the particulate levels at all three sites increased substantially (≈2×) above the regional baseline. Air mass back trajectory analyses using U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model suggested that, during these peak episodes, the arriving air masses spent recent days over desert areas (e.g., the Saharan Desert in North Africa). On days with regionally low PM2.5 concentrations (≈20 µg/m3), back trajectory analysis showed that air masses were directed in from the Mediterranean Sea area. Further, the lower elevation (downtown) site often recorded markedly higher particulate levels than the valley wall sites. This would suggest locally derived particulate sources are significant and may be beneficial in the identification of potential remediation options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Aerosol Measurements in Different Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
No Particle Mass Enhancement from Induced Atmospheric Ageing at a Rural Site in Northern Europe
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 408; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070408 - 17 Jul 2019
Abstract
A large portion of atmospheric aerosol particles consists of secondary material produced by oxidation reactions. The relative importance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can increase with improved emission regulations. A relatively simple way to study potential particle formation in the atmosphere is by [...] Read more.
A large portion of atmospheric aerosol particles consists of secondary material produced by oxidation reactions. The relative importance of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) can increase with improved emission regulations. A relatively simple way to study potential particle formation in the atmosphere is by using oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) which simulate atmospheric ageing. Here we report on the first ambient OFR ageing experiment in Europe, coupled with scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and proton transfer reaction (PTR)-MS measurements. We found that the simulated ageing did not produce any measurable increases in particle mass or number concentrations during the two months of the campaign due to low concentrations of precursors. Losses in the reactor increased with hydroxyl radical (OH) exposure and with increasing difference between ambient and reactor temperatures, indicating fragmentation and evaporation of semivolatile material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Aerosol Measurements in Different Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
PM2.5 Prediction Based on Random Forest, XGBoost, and Deep Learning Using Multisource Remote Sensing Data
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070373 - 04 Jul 2019
Abstract
In recent years, air pollution has become an important public health concern. The high concentration of fine particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is known to be associated with lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and metabolic disease. [...] Read more.
In recent years, air pollution has become an important public health concern. The high concentration of fine particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is known to be associated with lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and metabolic disease. Predicting PM2.5 concentrations can help governments warn people at high risk, thus mitigating the complications. Although attempts have been made to predict PM2.5 concentrations, the factors influencing PM2.5 prediction have not been investigated. In this work, we study feature importance for PM2.5 prediction in Tehran’s urban area, implementing random forest, extreme gradient boosting, and deep learning machine learning (ML) approaches. We use 23 features, including satellite and meteorological data, ground-measured PM2.5, and geographical data, in the modeling. The best model performance obtained was R2 = 0.81 (R = 0.9), MAE = 9.93 µg/m3, and RMSE = 13.58 µg/m3 using the XGBoost approach, incorporating elimination of unimportant features. However, all three ML methods performed similarly and R2 varied from 0.63 to 0.67, when Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at 3 km resolution was included, and 0.77 to 0.81, when AOD at 3 km resolution was excluded. Contrary to the PM2.5 lag data, satellite-derived AODs did not improve model performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Aerosol Measurements in Different Environments)
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Open AccessArticle
Black Carbon and Particulate Matter Concentrations in Eastern Mediterranean Urban Conditions: An Assessment Based on Integrated Stationary and Mobile Observations
Atmosphere 2019, 10(6), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10060323 - 13 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
There is a paucity of comprehensive air quality data from urban areas in the Middle East. In this study, portable instrumentation was used to measure size-fractioned aerosol number, mass, and black carbon concentrations in Amman and Zarqa, Jordan. Submicron particle number concentrations at [...] Read more.
There is a paucity of comprehensive air quality data from urban areas in the Middle East. In this study, portable instrumentation was used to measure size-fractioned aerosol number, mass, and black carbon concentrations in Amman and Zarqa, Jordan. Submicron particle number concentrations at stationary urban background sites in Amman and Zarqa exhibited a characteristic diurnal pattern, with the highest concentrations during traffic rush hours (2–5 × 104 cm−3 in Amman and 2–7 × 104 cm−3 in Zarqa). Super-micron particle number concentrations varied considerably in Amman (1–10 cm−3). Mobile measurements identified spatial variations and local hotspots in aerosol levels within both cities. Walking paths around the University of Jordan campus showed increasing concentrations with proximity to main roads with mean values of 8 × 104 cm−3, 87 µg/m3, 62 µg/m3, and 7.7 µg/m3 for submicron, PM10, PM2.5, and black carbon (BC), respectively. Walking paths in the Amman city center showed moderately high concentrations (mean 105 cm−3, 120 µg/m3, 85 µg/m3, and 8.1 µg/m3 for submicron aerosols, PM10, PM2.5, and black carbon, respectively). Similar levels were found along walking paths in the Zarqa city center. On-road measurements showed high submicron concentrations (>105 cm−3). The lowest submicron concentration (<104 cm−3) was observed near a remote site outside of the cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Aerosol Measurements in Different Environments)
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