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Open AccessArticle

Aerosol Particle and Black Carbon Emission Factors of Vehicular Fleet in Manila, Philippines

Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
Federal Environment Agency, 14195 Berlin, Germany
Manila Observatory, Ateneo de Manila University Campus, Loyola Heights, Quezon City 1108, Philippines
Department of Physics, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City 1108, Philippines
ARCHERS, CENSER, De La Salle University, Manila 0922, Philippines
Institute of Environmental Science and Meteorology, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(10), 603;
Received: 26 August 2019 / Revised: 27 September 2019 / Accepted: 1 October 2019 / Published: 4 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Aerosol Measurements in Different Environments)
Poor air quality has been identified as one of the main risks to human health, especially in developing regions, where the information on physical chemical properties of air pollutants is lacking. To bridge this gap, we conducted an intensive measurement campaign in Manila, Philippines to determine the emission factors (EFs) of particle number (PN) and equivalent black carbon (BC). The focus was on public utility jeepneys (PUJ), equipped with old technology diesel engines, widely used for public transportation. The EFs were determined by aerosol physical measurements, fleet information, and modeled dilution using the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). The results show that average vehicle EFs of PN and BC in Manila is up to two orders of magnitude higher than European emission standards. Furthermore, a PUJ emits up to seven times more than a light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and contribute to more than 60% of BC emission in Manila. Unfortunately, traffic restrictions for heavy-duty vehicles do not apply to PUJs. The results presented in this work provide a framework to help support targeted traffic interventions to improve urban air quality not only in Manila, but also in other countries with a similar fleet composed of old-technology vehicles. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrafine particles; black carbon; emission factor; air quality; South East Asia ultrafine particles; black carbon; emission factor; air quality; South East Asia
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Madueño, L.; Kecorius, S.; Birmili, W.; Müller, T.; Simpas, J.; Vallar, E.; Galvez, M.C.; Cayetano, M.; Wiedensohler, A. Aerosol Particle and Black Carbon Emission Factors of Vehicular Fleet in Manila, Philippines. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 603.

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