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Open AccessArticle

Black Carbon and Particulate Matter Concentrations in Eastern Mediterranean Urban Conditions: An Assessment Based on Integrated Stationary and Mobile Observations

1
Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman 11942, Jordan
2
Institute for Atmospheric and Earth System Research (INAR), University of Helsinki, PL 64, FI-00014 UHEL Helsinki, Finland
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871, Osaka, Japan
4
Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
5
Center for High Performance Buildings, Ray W. Herrick Laboratories, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(6), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10060323
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 31 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Aerosol Measurements in Different Environments)
There is a paucity of comprehensive air quality data from urban areas in the Middle East. In this study, portable instrumentation was used to measure size-fractioned aerosol number, mass, and black carbon concentrations in Amman and Zarqa, Jordan. Submicron particle number concentrations at stationary urban background sites in Amman and Zarqa exhibited a characteristic diurnal pattern, with the highest concentrations during traffic rush hours (2–5 × 104 cm−3 in Amman and 2–7 × 104 cm−3 in Zarqa). Super-micron particle number concentrations varied considerably in Amman (1–10 cm−3). Mobile measurements identified spatial variations and local hotspots in aerosol levels within both cities. Walking paths around the University of Jordan campus showed increasing concentrations with proximity to main roads with mean values of 8 × 104 cm−3, 87 µg/m3, 62 µg/m3, and 7.7 µg/m3 for submicron, PM10, PM2.5, and black carbon (BC), respectively. Walking paths in the Amman city center showed moderately high concentrations (mean 105 cm−3, 120 µg/m3, 85 µg/m3, and 8.1 µg/m3 for submicron aerosols, PM10, PM2.5, and black carbon, respectively). Similar levels were found along walking paths in the Zarqa city center. On-road measurements showed high submicron concentrations (>105 cm−3). The lowest submicron concentration (<104 cm−3) was observed near a remote site outside of the cities. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban air quality; ultrafine particles; human exposure; urban aerosols; Middle East and North Africa (MENA) urban air quality; ultrafine particles; human exposure; urban aerosols; Middle East and North Africa (MENA)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hussein, T.; Saleh, S.S.A.; dos Santos, V.N.; Abdullah, H.; Boor, B.E. Black Carbon and Particulate Matter Concentrations in Eastern Mediterranean Urban Conditions: An Assessment Based on Integrated Stationary and Mobile Observations. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 323.

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