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Open AccessArticle

Levels, Sources and Health Risk of PM2.5 and PM1-Bound PAHs across the Greater Athens Area: The Role of the Type of Environment and the Meteorology

1
Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Athens, Greece
2
Environmental Research Laboratory/ INT-RP, National Centre for Scientific Research Demokritos, 15310 Athens, Greece
3
Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Chemistry Department, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(10), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10100622
Received: 30 August 2019 / Revised: 25 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 15 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ambient Aerosol Measurements in Different Environments)
Fine particulate matter (PM) has significant impacts on public health. Among its various chemical components, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of particular importance since they contribute to a large extent or even enhance its toxic potency. Despite the verified importance of the fine PM pollution for the Greater Athens Area (GAA), information on its composition with respect to the hydrocarbons is extremely scarce. This study aims to uncover the occurrence of the PM2.5 and PM1-bound PAHs across the GAA investigating the impact of the sources and meteorology on the configuration of their profile and potential health risk. The fieldwork took place at three different locations during two different mesoscale wind regimes. Using the Diagnostic PAHs’ Ratio method, the sources were identified while for the quantification of the emissions from the traffic and central heating sectors, the FEI-GREGAA emission inventory was taken into consideration. The potential health risk was estimated calculating the toxic/mutagenic equivalency factors. The peaks for both the PM mass and the PAHs were attributed to the intensity of the emissions. On the other hand, the carcinogenic/mutagenic risk was mainly influenced by the varying characteristics of traffic and especially for the background atmosphere, from the arriving air masses from longer scale distances. View Full-Text
Keywords: fine particles; PM-bound PAHs; health risk; field campaign; FEI-GREGAA emission inventory; sources; atmospheric circulation; Mediterranean urban area fine particles; PM-bound PAHs; health risk; field campaign; FEI-GREGAA emission inventory; sources; atmospheric circulation; Mediterranean urban area
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Pateraki, S.; Fameli, K.-M.; Assimakopoulos, V.; Bougiatioti, A.; Maggos, T.; Mihalopoulos, N. Levels, Sources and Health Risk of PM2.5 and PM1-Bound PAHs across the Greater Athens Area: The Role of the Type of Environment and the Meteorology. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 622.

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