Special Issue "New Trends in Waste Management Models"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 March 2022) | Viewed by 10567

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Graça Martinho
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
MARE (Marine and Environmental Sciences Center) / Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Interests: waste management; waste collection systems; material recycling; waste management models
Prof. Dr. Nuno Lapa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Associated Laboratory for Green Chemistry (LAQV / REQUIMTE), Department of Chemistry (DQ), Faculty of Sciences and Technology (FCT), Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
Interests: biogas; biomethane; bioH2; pyrolysis; biochars; activated carbons; life cycle analysis
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Waste management and planning are two of the most important global problems with a strong interrelation with other worldwide problems such as public health, climate change, critical raw materials, biodiversity, and marine litter.

In addition to the old problems associated with waste management that are still not solved in many countries, such as the growing production, environmental pollution and health risks caused by incorrect management, we face the new challenges that the paradigm of circular economy introduced in the political agenda of many countries.

To meet the objectives of the circular economy we are challenged to do more, better and differently, in the way we produce, consume, and manage our wastes. We need technological advances and implementation of environmentally sustainable methods for dealing with waste and systems that can transform wastes into high-quality resources for the economy, in a sustainable way on the economic, environmental, social, and technological perspectives.

Currently, opportunities for technological innovation in waste management and planning are diverse and are emerging rapidly, such as innovative collection systems (smart bins and smart waste collection, Pay-as-you-Throw systems), high-tech recycling plants, robotic processing of waste, conversion of waste into building materials, fuels or electricity, and so on.

The purpose of this Special Issue is, therefore, to disseminate the results of these advances in technological innovation in the sectors of waste management.

We invite all of you with innovative works in these topics to submit your manuscripts to this Special Issue on “New Trends in Waste Management Models” of the Applied Sciences journal.

Prof. Dr. Graça Martinho
Prof. Dr. Nuno Lapa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Dynamic and intelligent waste collection systems
  • Design for a circular economy
  • Sorting processes and operations
  • Mechanical recycling of waste
  • Chemical recycling of plastics
  • Recovery, treatment, and recycling of specific waste streams (waste packaging, end-of-life vehicles, spent tires, batteries, used oils, waste electrical and electronic equipment, construction and demolition wastes)
  • Recovery of bio-wastes (composting, anaerobic digestion, biomethanation)
  • Waste-to-energy (incineration, co-incineration, gasification, pyrolysis)
  • Landfill (waterproofing systems, leachate treatment, capture and recovery of biogas, final cover systems, landfill mining)
  • Specific treatments for hazardous waste
  • Healthcare Waste Management

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Conversion of Argan Nutshells into Novel Porous Carbons in the Scope of Circular Economy: Adsorption Performance of Emerging Contaminants
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(15), 7607; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157607 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 318
Abstract
The present work proposes an experimental strategy to prepare argan nutshell-derived porous carbons using potassium hydroxide (KOH). Several experimental parameters of the activation process were evaluated (temperature, impregnation ratio, and activation time), and an optimized carbon (ACK) was obtained. The surface properties of [...] Read more.
The present work proposes an experimental strategy to prepare argan nutshell-derived porous carbons using potassium hydroxide (KOH). Several experimental parameters of the activation process were evaluated (temperature, impregnation ratio, and activation time), and an optimized carbon (ACK) was obtained. The surface properties of the ACK sample were determined, and the porous carbon was applied as an adsorbent of diclofenac (DCF) and paroxetine (PARX). A commercial carbon (CC) was used as a benchmark. The ACK porous carbon presented a higher surface area and micropore volume (1624 m2 g−1 and 0.40 cm3 g−1, respectively) than CC carbon (1030 m2 g−1 and 0.30 cm3 g−1, respectively), but the maximum adsorption capacities of DCF (214–217 mg g−1) and PARX (260–275 mg g−1) were comparable among the two carbons. Besides π-π interactions, H-bonds with the electronegative atoms of the adsorbate molecules and the electropositive H of the oxygen functional groups were appointed as the most probable mechanisms for adsorption onto ACK porous carbon. The electrostatic attraction was also considered, particularly for DCF with CC carbon. The pore size might have also been critical, since CC carbon presented more supermicropores (0.7–2 nm), which are usually more favorable toward the adsorption of pharmaceutical molecules. The reusability of the ACK carbon was tested up to four cycles of adsorption–desorption by using ultrasonic washing with water. The results indicated that no more than one cycle of use of ACK should be performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Waste Management Models)
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Article
Assessment Impacts of Ozone on Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Liquid Dairy Waste
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(13), 6527; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12136527 - 28 Jun 2022
Viewed by 870
Abstract
Liquid dairy manure, which is produced in enormous quantities in flush dairy manure management systems, is commonly used as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. It provides nutrient benefits to crops and soils. While dairy waste is a well-accepted and widely used fertilizer, the [...] Read more.
Liquid dairy manure, which is produced in enormous quantities in flush dairy manure management systems, is commonly used as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. It provides nutrient benefits to crops and soils. While dairy waste is a well-accepted and widely used fertilizer, the presence of indicator organisms and human pathogens in manure may lead to pathogen contamination in crops and soils. This study is focused on the examination of ozone gas-based sterilization. In the past, ozone (O3) has been used for sanitizing various foods and solid surfaces, but the potential of O3 for eliminating human pathogens in liquid dairy waste is not studied yet. Pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 are reported to be present in liquid dairy manure, and this research evaluated the effects of various levels of ozone on the survival of these two pathogens. We designed a continuous type O3 treatment system that has four major components: (1) ozone generator using oxygen; (2) ozone concentration control by mixing with pure air; (3) continuous monitoring of ozone concentrations; and (4) ozone experiment chambers. Various levels of ozone (43.26, 87.40, and 132.46 mg·L−1) were produced in the ozone system, and subsequently, ozone was diffused through liquid manure. Liquid manure was exposed to ozone for multiple durations (30, 60, and 120 min). To determine the effectiveness of O3 in eliminating pathogens, time-series samples were collected and analyzed for determining the levels of S. typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7. Preliminary results showed that ozone concentrations of 132.46 mg/L, and exposure time of 120 min resulted in the reduced levels of E. coli and Salmonella. Low levels of ozone and limited exposure time were found to be less effective in pathogen removal potentially due to high solid contents. Additional studies carrying out experiments to evaluate the impacts of solids in combination with ozone concentrations will provide further insights into developing full-scale ozone-based treatment systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Waste Management Models)
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Article
BioH2 from Dark Fermentation of OFMSW: Effect of the Hydraulic Retention Time and Organic Loading Rate
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4240; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094240 - 22 Apr 2022
Viewed by 558
Abstract
Food wastes represent one third of all food produced worldwide. It is crucial to both prevent the production of food waste and recover the wasted fraction with the aim to valorizing it. In this context, the conversion of the organic fraction of municipal [...] Read more.
Food wastes represent one third of all food produced worldwide. It is crucial to both prevent the production of food waste and recover the wasted fraction with the aim to valorizing it. In this context, the conversion of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) into bioH2 by dark fermentation (DF) is an important technology to valorize these wastes into renewable fuel. Nevertheless, the DF of OFMSW needs to be optimized for critical operational parameters. The main purposes of this study were to investigate (i) the effect of HRT during continuous bioH2 production through DF and (ii) the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) ruled by HRT. In this work, three HRTs (4, 5, and 6 d) were tested in a mesophilic continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR). The HRTs of 4, 5, and 6 days, corresponding to OLRs of 23.6, 18.0, and 10.6 g volatile solids (VS)·L−1·d−1, respectively, showed bioH2 yields of 8.48, 18.2, and 1.64 L·kg−1 VSinfluent with an H2 content of approximately 25, 32, and 5% v/v, respectively. An accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was registered with the decrease in HRT, causing a decrease in bioH2 production. The 5 d HRT was the most favorable condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Waste Management Models)
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Article
Impact of Natural Weathering on Stabilization of Heavy Metals (Cu, Zn, and Pb) in MSWI Bottom Ash
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3419; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073419 - 28 Mar 2022
Viewed by 384
Abstract
Bottom ash (BA) is the main residue left by municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). As the circular economy is strengthened, the use of BA in civil engineering is increasing, but its successful use is hampered by heavy metal leaching. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Bottom ash (BA) is the main residue left by municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). As the circular economy is strengthened, the use of BA in civil engineering is increasing, but its successful use is hampered by heavy metal leaching. In this study, we investigated the influence of natural weathering (6 months) on the stabilization of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, and Pb) with different particle sizes in MSWI BA. Natural weathering is the most popular and cost-effective treatment method for BA. During this process, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is produced, which causes a reduction in heavy metal leaching. We used the following methods in the analysis: The fractionation of BA, XRF, and XRD; an extraction test (LST EN 12457-2:2003); and AAS. The results showed that the concentrations of all elements in BA decreased during natural weathering. An analysis of the mineralogical composition showed a very high (>20%) content of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The calcium carbonate content increased by 3.2% during weathering because the Ca(OH)2 in fractions <5.6 mm and <40.0 mm was hydrolyzed to CaCO3. Our analysis showed that the metal concentrations (Cu and Pb) in untreated MSWI bottom ash eluate exceeded the limit values, and thus it cannot be used in civil engineering. After three months of stabilization, the heavy metal concentrations were less than the limit values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Waste Management Models)
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Article
Environmental and Economic Evaluation of Mechanical Biological Treatment System for Municipal Waste Considering the Political Framework in Ichihara City
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10296; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110296 - 02 Nov 2021
Viewed by 552
Abstract
Japan’s declining population has caused changes in the amount and characteristics of municipal waste. In order to optimize waste incineration plants as a countermeasure to this problem, we analyzed the performance of the integration of the plants with the Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) [...] Read more.
Japan’s declining population has caused changes in the amount and characteristics of municipal waste. In order to optimize waste incineration plants as a countermeasure to this problem, we analyzed the performance of the integration of the plants with the Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT) system. In the integrated system, food waste and sewage sludge from waste incineration plants, sewage treatment plants, and industrial facilities were mixed and fermented to produce methane gas. In this study, we evaluated the environmental and economic performance of the integrated system in four case scenarios. The integrated system is located in Ichihara City in Chiba Prefecture, where the Keiyo Coastal Industrial Zone is located and where petroleum and chemical industries are concentrated. The MBT system in which the heat generated from the incineration of waste was transferred to the Keiyo Coastal Industrial Zone was found to be the best. This method could reduce CO2 emissions by 1341 t-CO2/Y, and the annual cost was the lowest at 1.60 billion yen/Y. However, the results of the sensitivity analysis of the food waste ratio and the piping distance suggested that it may be impossible to obtain appropriate evaluation results without considering the regional characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Waste Management Models)
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Article
Analysis of the Landfill Leachate Treatment System Using Arima Models: A Case Study in a Megacity
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6988; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156988 - 29 Jul 2021
Viewed by 648
Abstract
Leachate has been reported as the most significant source of landfill pollution. Predicting the characteristics of untreated and treated leachate may be useful during optimal scheduling of leachate treatment systems. The objective of this paper is to show an analysis of the operation [...] Read more.
Leachate has been reported as the most significant source of landfill pollution. Predicting the characteristics of untreated and treated leachate may be useful during optimal scheduling of leachate treatment systems. The objective of this paper is to show an analysis of the operation of a landfill leachate treatment system in a Latin American megacity (Bogota, Colombia) by means of auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. A comparative analysis of the leachate treated with respect to reference legislation is carried out. The influence of climate variables during the operation of the treatment system is also considered. The results suggest that the concentrations of heavy metals (HMs), BOD5, and COD in untreated leachate do not follow the same annual cycles observed for the quantity of solid waste disposed within the landfill. This difference is possibly associated with the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the leachate inside the conduction and pre-treatment system (storage/homogenization ponds). The ARIMA analysis suggests an HRT of up to one month (AR = 1) for the HMs identified as indicators of untreated leachate (Cu, Pb, and Zn). It is noted that the removal efficiency of HM indicators of the operation of the leachate treatment plant (Fe and Ni) is probably conditioned by operations carried out over a period of one month (AR = 1). The high input concentration of these HM indicators may prevent changing their ARIMA temporal structure during leachate treatment. This is reflected in the low removal efficiencies for all HMs under study (average = 26.1%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Waste Management Models)
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Article
Moisture Measurement in Paper and Cardboard Packaging Waste Bales for Recycling
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4586; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104586 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 742
Abstract
Moisture content is a quality issue raised by recycling plants in the acceptance of paper and cardboard coming from waste streams. The current way to measure this parameter is by the oven drying method, which is a slow and invasive process, costing time [...] Read more.
Moisture content is a quality issue raised by recycling plants in the acceptance of paper and cardboard coming from waste streams. The current way to measure this parameter is by the oven drying method, which is a slow and invasive process, costing time and resources for the recyclers to do this type of quality control. An alternative to such a measurement technique is the use of plate-form devices which indirectly measure the moisture content using the dielectric properties of water and paper. This study has tested this method and developed a representative equation for the use of devices with these properties in the Portuguese market. For that, 48 wastepaper and cardboard bales were tested with both the traditional (oven drying) method and a commercial device equipped with dielectric technology. An equation that fits the studied reality (R2 = 0.76) was achieved, and possible problems regarding the use of this device were tested. The results showed that this type of device could be used as a time- and cost-saving, non-destructive and reliable method in the quality control of wastepaper and cardboard bales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Waste Management Models)
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Article
Cottonseed Kernel Powder as a Natural Health Supplement: An Approach to Reduce the Gossypol Content and Maximize the Nutritional Benefits
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3901; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093901 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
Cottonseed is one of the important by-products of the cotton crop. Researchers claim that cottonseed with less than 0.45% of gossypol is quite good for human consumption and animal feeding because it is a rich source of protein, edible oil, and energy. Total [...] Read more.
Cottonseed is one of the important by-products of the cotton crop. Researchers claim that cottonseed with less than 0.45% of gossypol is quite good for human consumption and animal feeding because it is a rich source of protein, edible oil, and energy. Total and free gossypols are the influencing parameters that reduce the edible nature of the cottonseed. In the present work, multiple quadratic regression models have been prepared to predict the reduction in the free and total gossypol percent. This response surface method (RSM)-based approach was applied to investigate the combined effect between input parameters such as acetone level, time of extraction, liquid-to-solid ratio (LSR), and the number of extraction cycles, whereas output responses are free and total gossypol reduction percentage. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) has been performed to determine the highly significant parameter. The optimum combination of input parameters was determined using the RSM-based desirability approach, and confirmatory experiments were performed to validate the combination. Results revealed that the number of extraction cycles and liquid-to-solid ratio significantly affects the reduction of free and total gossypol levels. The values of r-square were found above 0.9, which indicates that the developed models are suitable and reliable for predicting free and total gossypol reduction percentage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Waste Management Models)
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Article
Municipal Solid Waste Management and Waste-to-Energy Potential from Rajshahi City Corporation in Bangladesh
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 3744; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11093744 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
Waste management is becoming one of the most challenging tasks for developing countries in order to ensure good human health, as well as a healthy environment. Rajshahi City Corporation (RCC) is one of the 12 city corporations in Bangladesh. Various environmental and human [...] Read more.
Waste management is becoming one of the most challenging tasks for developing countries in order to ensure good human health, as well as a healthy environment. Rajshahi City Corporation (RCC) is one of the 12 city corporations in Bangladesh. Various environmental and human health problems have arisen due to a lack of proper knowledge of waste management. Thus, the aim of this work is to illustrate the present status of MSW generation and management in Rajshahi City Corporation, Bangladesh. Fifty households were selected throughout RCC for waste collection, which represent approximately all types of households in RCC. From the qualitative and quantitative analysis, it is estimated that the approximate MSW generation in RCC is 358.19 t/d (tons/day) at an approximate rate of 0.4214 kg/person/d. Calorific values of the wastes have also been determined using the ultimate analysis results of the MSW. A higher calorific value of the dry MSW has been calculated as 14.9 MJ/kg. Moisture content of the MSW has been found to be 48.28%. It is also estimated that the possible power generation (steam energy to electrical power) from MSW generated in RCC is 159.40 MWh/d. Lastly, future scopes of MSW management and different waste management measures that need to be taken are illustrated. Waste-to-energy (WTE) conversion has been given priority and anaerobic digestion (AD) has been found to be an interesting prospect in this sector. Techno-economic analysis of the AD has been conducted. Energy potential from the proposed plant has been calculated as 3.85 MW and the payback period has been found to be 4.9 years. It has been observed that employing AD on a large scale can not only reduce the waste, but also meet a large portion of the energy demand of this city. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Waste Management Models)
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Review

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Review
Dairy Waste and Potential of Small-Scale Biogas Digester for Rural Energy in India
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10671; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210671 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 616
Abstract
In order to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, related global warming and dependency on fossil fuels, it is crucial to promote the uses of renewable energy, and conversion of biomass and organic waste into energy sources. In many parts of the world, a [...] Read more.
In order to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, related global warming and dependency on fossil fuels, it is crucial to promote the uses of renewable energy, and conversion of biomass and organic waste into energy sources. In many parts of the world, a substantial increase in efforts for the conversion of waste into energy is currently being observed. Specifically, biogas technology has been emphasized for the conversion of animal waste into biomethane/biogas because livestock waste is considered to be a substantial source of ambient greenhouse gases, causing climate change. While biogas technology, an anerobic process to convert livestock waste into biogas, is promoted in both developed and developing countries, this review article is focused on improving our existing understanding of small-scale biogas technology and relevance of this technology in rural environment of India. A thorough review research has been performed to gather the information on livestock population, manure production, and potential of biogas technology in India to provide a wholistic information. A summary of the financial supports facilitated by various agencies, the cost of biogas plants, potential uses, and potential challenges in the dissemination of biogas technology in India has been discussed in this study. We anticipate that the data and interpretation provided here will help in understanding the scope of biogas technology in India and will help in formulating the policies which will support the implementation of biogas technologies in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Waste Management Models)
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Review
Opportunities and Barriers for Valorizing Waste Incineration Bottom Ash: Iberian Countries as a Case Study
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9690; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209690 - 18 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
Incineration bottom ashes (IBA) are the main waste from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. In the Iberian countries (Portugal and Spain), MSW incineration with energy recovery (WtE) plays an important role in MSW management. IBA is highly produced and managed differently both between [...] Read more.
Incineration bottom ashes (IBA) are the main waste from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. In the Iberian countries (Portugal and Spain), MSW incineration with energy recovery (WtE) plays an important role in MSW management. IBA is highly produced and managed differently both between and within countries. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the management model of IBA using the Iberian Peninsula as a case study, addressing its properties, current management, incentives and difficulties in valorizing, and prospects. For this purpose, incineration plants of both countries were approached, and a broad literature review was conducted to gather information. About 10% and 41% of IBA have been landfilled in Portugal and Spain, respectively. Metals (mostly ferrous) from Portuguese (6% of IBA) and Spanish (9% of IBA) WtE plants are recycled. In Portugal, the remaining IBA (84%) has been temporarily stored (11%), applied to landfills as a substitute for soil in intermediate and final covers, construction of paths, accesses, and platforms (41%), or used in civil engineering work and road construction (48%). In Spain, the remaining IBA (50%) has been reused mainly as a secondary raw material in the construction and civil engineering fields (77%), while the rest has been temporarily stored (11%), applied in the conditioning of landfills (4%), alsoa secondary aggregate replacing natural materials. Both countries regulate IBA reuse outside landfills but consider different requirements and criteria. Nevertheless, there are both drivers and barriers to valorization. In the future, different IBA applications will likely continue to be developed, with the concern of protecting the environment. Growing confidence in IBA reuse following the publication of proper studies is expected. Globally, uniform legal frameworks among EU members with the same standards would likely lead to better IBA valorization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Waste Management Models)
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Review
Waste Management Strategies to Mitigate the Effects of Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases on Climate Change
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4367; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104367 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases) are used for various applications, such as in refrigeration and air conditioning, as substitutes of the ozone-depleting substances. Their utilization has increased drastically over the last few decades, with serious consequences for global warming. The Kigali Amendment to the [...] Read more.
Fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases) are used for various applications, such as in refrigeration and air conditioning, as substitutes of the ozone-depleting substances. Their utilization has increased drastically over the last few decades, with serious consequences for global warming. The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol and several national and international legislations, such as the 2014 EU F-gas Regulation, aim to control the utilization and emissions of these gases. In the EU, the phase-down of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) is underway, with successive reductions in quotas up to 2050. Under this scenario, efficient strategies for managing the produced and already existing F-gases are of vital importance to guarantee that their effect on the environment is mitigated. Up to now, most of the F-gases recovered from end-of-life equipment or when retrofitting systems are either released into the atmosphere or destroyed. However, in order to put forward a cost-efficient adaptation to the F-gas phase-down, increasing separation and recycling efforts must be made. This critical review aims at providing a revision of the current F-gas management problems and strategies and providing an overview on the innovative strategies that can be applied to contribute to build a sustainable market under circular economy principles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Waste Management Models)
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