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Structural Design and Computational Methods

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2022) | Viewed by 31260

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, ISEP-IPP, Porto, Portugal
Interests: solid mechanics; thermal; fire; connections (wood, steel); computational mechanics and biomechanics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic of Porto, Porto, Portugal
Interests: structural health monitoring; mechanical engineering; damage identification; structural damage identification; non-destructive testing; experimental mechanics; speckle interferometry; modal analysis; image processing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Structural design is a field of applied mechanics, dedicated to the study of deformations, stresses, flexibility, dynamics, and material properties.

Nowadays, the structural design and computational methods are a very active research field, due to the search for innovative solutions, the study of structural behaviour and the characterization of new materials applied in different engineering applications.

The goal of this special issue ‘’Structural Design and Computational Methods’’ is to bring together the latest developments and challenges.

This Special Issue aims to discuss these aspects, giving a clear and complete overview in these fields. New trends will be discussed along with the recent developments and solutions that are still under investigation.

Original articles in the following topics are welcome for submission. Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Stresses analysis
  • Thermal analysis
  • Computational solutions
  • Experimental solutions

Prof. Dr. Elza Maria Morais Fonseca
Prof. Dr. Hernâni Miguel Reis Lopes
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • solid mechanics
  • structural
  • thermal
  • materials
  • fire
  • design
  • computational mechanics
  • biomechanics

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 8259 KiB  
Article
A New Finite Element Analysis Model to Estimate Contact Stress in Ball Screw
by Geon-Ho Shin and Jang-Wook Hur
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4713; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094713 - 7 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2472
Abstract
A ball screw is a mechanical part that converts rotational motion into translational motion, but when it receives an excessive axial load, permanent deformation occurs inside. As ball screws are mostly used for precise driving, permanent deformation has a fatal effect on the [...] Read more.
A ball screw is a mechanical part that converts rotational motion into translational motion, but when it receives an excessive axial load, permanent deformation occurs inside. As ball screws are mostly used for precise driving, permanent deformation has a fatal effect on the operation of the system. As this permanent deformation mostly occurs on the contact surface between the ball and other parts, it is necessary to observe the change of internal stress caused by the contact of the parts in order to determine whether permanent deformation occurs. Theoretical calculations or finite element analysis (FEA) are mainly used for the analysis of rotating parts, but existing methods have difficulty in observing stress changes occurring on the narrow contact surface of ball screws. In this paper, a new FEA model that can efficiently estimate the stress caused by internal contact inside the ball screw is presented. This model is a synthetic model that applies theoretical calculation results to a 3D FEA model. Factors derived by theoretical calculation include the shape of the contact surface where the ball and other parts meet and the contact pressure at the contact surface, which were derived by a method based on Hertz contact theory. As a result of observing the internal stress distribution of the ball screw estimated by the model, it was confirmed that the shape was similar to that of the actual stress distribution and, compared with the analysis results of other conventional methods conducted with the same mesh shape, the results of the model presented in this paper were more valid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Design and Computational Methods)
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16 pages, 1813 KiB  
Article
Definition and Determination of Fin Substitution Factors Accelerating Thermal Simulations
by Matthias Roppel, Frank Rieg and Stephan Tremmel
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4449; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094449 - 28 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1423
Abstract
The effort of numerical heat transfer calculations increases with the complexity and size of the domains and surfaces under consideration. When calculating heat transfers on finned arrays, one way to reduce this effort is to substitute the fins. Therefore, this work defines the [...] Read more.
The effort of numerical heat transfer calculations increases with the complexity and size of the domains and surfaces under consideration. When calculating heat transfers on finned arrays, one way to reduce this effort is to substitute the fins. Therefore, this work defines the fin substitution factor by considering that a smooth surface behaves thermally sufficiently similar to a specific finned array. A process for determining the case-specific most accurate analytical computation path for fin substitution factors is also defined. The performance of the process and the resulting solution is demonstrated using the example of vertical rectangular finned arrays under natural convective heat transfer with a constant fin base temperature and air as the surrounding fluid. The heat flows determined in solid-state simulations of flat plates considering fin substitution factors deviated by an average of 6.2% from the heat flows resulting from detailed CFD simulations of the corresponding finned arrays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Design and Computational Methods)
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16 pages, 5187 KiB  
Article
Study on Inertia Load Resistance Analysis Method of Light Truck Door Latch
by Jian Hu, Lei Xu, Sangdu Guo, Yiming Sun and Gangyan Li
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4171; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094171 - 21 Apr 2022
Viewed by 4059
Abstract
Aiming at the problem of door opening caused by the unlocking of the side door latch system under the action of inertial force when the car is in a side impact, this paper takes a light truck door latch as the research object, [...] Read more.
Aiming at the problem of door opening caused by the unlocking of the side door latch system under the action of inertial force when the car is in a side impact, this paper takes a light truck door latch as the research object, and proposes an inertia load resistance analysis method combining theoretical calculation and simulation analysis. Through the theoretical calculation of inertia load resistance of the door latch, the force of each part and the rotation of the pawl are analyzed. We perform inertia load resistance simulation analysis on the latch to verify the reliability of the theoretical calculation results. If the theoretical calculation result is that the latch will be unlocked under the inertia load of 60 g (588 m/s2), we compare the force of each part in the theoretical calculation process with the normal opening condition of the latch to provide a basis for the optimization of the latch structure. Finally, theoretical calculations and a simulation analysis are carried out on the optimized results again, and a latch structure that meets the requirements of the inertia load resistance is obtained. Since the results obtained from the inertia load resistance simulation analysis are basically consistent with the theoretical calculation results of the inertia load resistance and the inertia load resistance simulation requires a lot of computing time, after the verification of the inertia load resistance simulation analysis, firstly, the inertia load resistance simulation step can be omitted in the subsequent structural optimization process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Design and Computational Methods)
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14 pages, 3431 KiB  
Article
Influence of Freeze-Thaw Aging on the Impact Performance of Damped Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics for Automotive Applications
by Enrico Virgillito, Lorenzo Sisca and Massimiliana Carello
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 4020; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12084020 - 15 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1350
Abstract
The increasing use of composite materials in the automotive field requires more attention with regards to the appearance of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) study in cars construction. However, in car door panels production, impact characteristics need to be evaluated in sandwich laminates. [...] Read more.
The increasing use of composite materials in the automotive field requires more attention with regards to the appearance of noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) study in cars construction. However, in car door panels production, impact characteristics need to be evaluated in sandwich laminates. Furthermore, it is important to consider the effect of prolonged environmental aging on crashworthiness properties. The innovative content of the work is the hygrothermal effects evaluation on impact performance for two damped CFRP sandwich laminates. In this paper, two damping materials, Kraibon HHZ9578/99 and SUT9609/24, were used as core between two skins of CFRP for sandwich composite production. Freeze-Thaw aging treatment according to IEC 60068, specific for Automotive, was performed to investigate environmental effects on components. Up to 750 h, it was demonstrated that water absorption is regulated by Fick’s Law. The low-velocity impact behavior of the damped sandwiches has been studied according to ASTM D7136 throughout drop dart test equipment. Both main peak forces and energy absorption characteristics are negatively affected by aging condition. The introduction of damping core inside the composite structure of vehicle components can satisfy NVH constrictions. By contrast, at least same operating conditions must be assured in relation to not-damped components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Design and Computational Methods)
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26 pages, 5154 KiB  
Article
Thermal–Structural Coupling Analysis of Subsea Connector Sealing Contact
by Feihong Yun, Dong Liu, Xiujun Xu, Kefeng Jiao, Xiaoquan Hao, Liquan Wang, Zheping Yan, Peng Jia, Xiangyu Wang and Bin Liang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 3194; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12063194 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2441
Abstract
Taking a subsea collet connector as an example, the contact characteristics of the sealing structure of the subsea connector under thermal–structural coupling were studied. Considering the heat transfer problem of the subsea connector in deep water, the heat transfer model of seawater layer [...] Read more.
Taking a subsea collet connector as an example, the contact characteristics of the sealing structure of the subsea connector under thermal–structural coupling were studied. Considering the heat transfer problem of the subsea connector in deep water, the heat transfer model of seawater layer between sealing structures was established, and the relationship between equivalent thermal conductivity, composite heat transfer coefficient, and temperature was determined. The steady-state temperature field distribution of the connector under the action of the internal high-temperature oil and gas and external low-temperature seawater was obtained. Considering the stress and deformation of the subsea connector under the thermal load, the thermal–structural coupling analysis model of the steady-state temperature field was established, and the thermal stress theoretical analysis and numerical simulation of the key sealing structures of the connector were compared and verified. Analysis of coupled stress calculation, for example, under a steady-state temperature field, was carried out on the sealing structure of the subsea connector. At the same time, the pressure shock mode under a steady temperature field was analyzed, which showed that the lenticular sealing gasket is sensitive to high pressure under high-temperature conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Design and Computational Methods)
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15 pages, 6650 KiB  
Article
Identification and Reconstruction of Impact Load for Lightweight Design of Production Equipment
by Jungwhan Oh, Sunghoon Choi, Jiyoung Hwang, Jaekeun Yoon, Haejung Kang and Dongchoul Kim
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 2870; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062870 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2695
Abstract
This paper proposes a method for determining externally applied impact loads on complex structures using strain analysis. An impact load transducer was developed to determine impact loads. Using this transducer (which incorporates strain gauges), the relationship between the measured strains and applied impact [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a method for determining externally applied impact loads on complex structures using strain analysis. An impact load transducer was developed to determine impact loads. Using this transducer (which incorporates strain gauges), the relationship between the measured strains and applied impact load was studied, and a model for conversion from strain analysis to impact load was developed. The reconstructed impact curve that characterizes the impact peak force, impact duration, and load in the steady state after impact was employed as an input load curve in finite element analysis. The reconstructed impact load was validated by comparing the structural strain measured on the specimen in the experiments and the strain calculated by the simulations. The results show that the maximum difference between experimentally and numerically determined structural peak strains is 3.2 με. Moreover, the method was validated by predicting the impact load of a descending vehicle chassis on the production equipment in an automotive production line. It demonstrated high efficiency and accuracy. The reconstructed load curve obtained using the developed method provides high efficiency in addition to high accuracy. Furthermore, it circumvents the complexities of modeling dynamic impact simulation, including complex impactor shape, interface, and friction conditions. Thus, the developed method provides scholars with an efficient approach for an extensive study of the responses of complex structures in various fields such as stress strain analysis, fatigue analysis, and topology optimization for lightweight design of production equipment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Design and Computational Methods)
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15 pages, 2359 KiB  
Article
Parametric Study of Three Types of Timber Connections with Metal Fasteners Using Eurocode 5
by Elza M. M. Fonseca, Pedro A. S. Leite, Lino D. S. Silva, Vânia S. B. Silva and Hernâni M. Lopes
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1701; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031701 - 7 Feb 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2501
Abstract
This work presents the results of three types of timber connections, in double-shear, with metal dowel-type fasteners, using the simplified equations from of Eurocode 5. All the design parameters were established and compared using three different properties of strength and density of the [...] Read more.
This work presents the results of three types of timber connections, in double-shear, with metal dowel-type fasteners, using the simplified equations from of Eurocode 5. All the design parameters were established and compared using three different properties of strength and density of the wood that represent the connecting members. A total of eighty-one connections were obtained, allowing for the determination of the number of fasteners needed for the applied tensile load. A large number and different types of connections allow the verification of the effect of the dowel parameters together with the wood characteristics. In all of the types of timber connections studied, the number of dowels increases with the applied tensile load, with lower dowel diameter, lower wood density, and strength. The design characteristic load-carrying capacity per shear plane and fastener also decreases with the previously considered parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Design and Computational Methods)
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9 pages, 2916 KiB  
Article
Proposal for a New Bioactive Kinetic Screw in an Implant, Using a Numerical Model
by Carlos Aurelio Andreucci, Abdullah Alshaya, Elza M. M. Fonseca and Renato N. Jorge
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020779 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2337
Abstract
A new biomechanism, Bioactive Kinetic Screw (BKS) for screws and bone implants created by the first author, is presented using a bone dental implant screw, in which the bone particles, blood, cells, and protein molecules removed during bone drilling are used as a [...] Read more.
A new biomechanism, Bioactive Kinetic Screw (BKS) for screws and bone implants created by the first author, is presented using a bone dental implant screw, in which the bone particles, blood, cells, and protein molecules removed during bone drilling are used as a homogeneous autogenous transplant in the same implant site, aiming to obtain primary and secondary bone stability, simplifying the surgical procedure, and improving the healing process. The new BKS is based on complex geometry. In this work, we describe the growth factor (GF) delivery properties and the in situ optimization of the use of the GF in the fixation of bone screws through a dental implant. To describe the drilling process, an explicit dynamic numerical model was created, where the results show a significant impact of the drilling process on the bone material. The simulation demonstrates that the space occupied by the screw causes stress and deformation in the bone during the perforation and removal of the particulate bone, resulting in the accumulation of material removed within the implant screw, filling the limit hole of the drill grooves present on the new BKS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Design and Computational Methods)
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14 pages, 1994 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation of the Accuracy and Precision of Jump Height Measurements Using Different Technologies and Analytical Methods
by Filipe Conceição, Martin Lewis, Hernâni Lopes and Elza M. M. Fonseca
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010511 - 5 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3740
Abstract
This study aims to comprehensively assess the accuracy and precision of five different devices and by incorporating a variety of analytical approaches for measuring countermovement jump height: Qualisys motion system; Force platform; Ergojump; an Accelerometer, and self-made Abalakow jump belt. Twenty-seven male and [...] Read more.
This study aims to comprehensively assess the accuracy and precision of five different devices and by incorporating a variety of analytical approaches for measuring countermovement jump height: Qualisys motion system; Force platform; Ergojump; an Accelerometer, and self-made Abalakow jump belt. Twenty-seven male and female physical education students (23.5 ± 3.8 years; height 170 ± 9.1 cm and body mass 69.1 ± 11.4 kg) performed three countermovement jumps simultaneously measured using five devices. The 3D measured displacement obtained through the Qualisys device was considered in this study as the reference value. The best accuracy (difference from 3D measured displacement) and precision (standard deviation of differences) for countermovement jump measurement was found using the Abalakow jump belt (0.8 ± 14.7 mm); followed by the Force platform when employing a double integration method (1.5 ± 13.9 mm) and a flight-time method employed using Qualisys motion system data (6.1 ± 17.1 mm). The least accuracy was obtained for the Ergojump (−72.9 mm) employing its analytical tools and then for the accelerometer and Force platform using flight time approximations (−52.8 mm and −45.3 mm, respectively). The worst precision (±122.7 mm) was obtained through double integration of accelerometer acceleration data. This study demonstrated that jump height measurement accuracy is both device and analytical-approach-dependent and that accuracy and precision in jump height measurement are achievable with simple, inexpensive equipment such as the Abalakow jump belt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Design and Computational Methods)
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15 pages, 6005 KiB  
Article
Development of a Vibration Technique Based on Geometric Optimization for Fatigue Life Evaluation of Sandwich Composite Structures
by Marco Menegozzo, Frederick A. Just-Agosto, David Serrano Acevedo, Basir Shafiq, Andrés Cecchini, Joaquín M. Valencia Bravo and Uday K. Vaidya
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010016 - 21 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2900
Abstract
A major obstacle to obtaining cost-effective experimental data on the fatigue life of sandwich panels is the prohibitive amount of time and cost required to carry out millions of cycles. On the other hand, vibration techniques applied to sandwich geometries fail to match [...] Read more.
A major obstacle to obtaining cost-effective experimental data on the fatigue life of sandwich panels is the prohibitive amount of time and cost required to carry out millions of cycles. On the other hand, vibration techniques applied to sandwich geometries fail to match the stress patterns that are obtained from standard flexural fatigue tests. To overcome such limitations, a vibration-based fatigue technique is proposed, which entails the use of sandwich specimens whose geometries are optimized to reproduce the stress distribution observed during three point bend loading while vibrating at the first resonant frequency. The proposed vibration technique was experimentally validated. The results, compared with the average number of cycles to failure at different stress ratios obtained via the Three-Point Bending test, showed high levels of accuracy. The proposed method is robust and time effective and indicates the possibility of attaining fatigue lifetime prediction of a wide class of composite elements, such as sandwich panels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Design and Computational Methods)
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11 pages, 4904 KiB  
Article
Modelling of the Motion and Interaction of a Droplet of an Inkjet Printing Process with Physically Treated Polymers Substrates
by Tim Tofan and Raimondas Jasevičius
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(23), 11465; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311465 - 3 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
This study examines the effect of energetic surface treatment on the adhesion strength of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The purpose of this work is to determine the surface wettability of polymers suitable for food contact. These plastics [...] Read more.
This study examines the effect of energetic surface treatment on the adhesion strength of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. The purpose of this work is to determine the surface wettability of polymers suitable for food contact. These plastics have been treated with various pre-treatment methods to improve surface tension and good adhesion for inkjet printing and avoid any visual changes. It is important to determine the adhesion of the ink to the polymer surface to improve post-consumer recycling. Digital inks have been tested on various treated plastics to analyse coating properties and adhesion forces in accordance with DIN ISO 2409 standards. The impact of the inkjet droplet on the treated and non-treated surface was also investigated using the COMSOL computer simulation software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Design and Computational Methods)
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16 pages, 2630 KiB  
Article
Stiffness-Oriented Structure Topology Optimization for Hinge-Free Compliant Mechanisms Design
by Jincheng Guo and Huaping Tang
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10831; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210831 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
This paper presents a stiffness-oriented structure topology optimization (TO) method for the design of a continuous, hinge-free compliant mechanism (CM). A synthesis formulation is developed to maximize the mechanism’s mutual potential energy (MPE) to achieve required structure flexibility while maximizing the desired stiffness [...] Read more.
This paper presents a stiffness-oriented structure topology optimization (TO) method for the design of a continuous, hinge-free compliant mechanism (CM). A synthesis formulation is developed to maximize the mechanism’s mutual potential energy (MPE) to achieve required structure flexibility while maximizing the desired stiffness to withstand the loads. Different from the general approach of maximizing the overall stiffness of the structure, the proposed approach can contribute to guiding the optimization process focus on the desired stiffness in a specified direction by weighting the related eigen-frequency of the corresponding eigenmode. The benefit from this is that we can make full use of the material in micro-level compliant mechanism designs. The single-node connected hinge issue which often happened in optimized design can be precluded by introducing the eigen-frequency constraint into this synthesis formulation. Several obtained hinge-free designs illustrate the validity and robustness of the presented method and offer an alternative method for hinge-free compliant mechanism designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Design and Computational Methods)
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